Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults
- 3.5k Downloads
This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.
KeywordsGender dysphoria Transsexualism Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults DSM-5
We are most grateful to all persons who made this research possible, especially the participants of this study. We would also like to thank the collaborating medical and psychosocial staff and colleagues of all four clinics in Belgium, in the Netherlands, in Norway, and in Hamburg. Further, we would like to especially thank the Editor, for his thoughtful comments and his input regarding the statistical analyses. The first author is especially grateful for his patience and support in the process.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
- Benjamin, H. (1966). The transsexual phenomenon: A scientific report on transsexualism and sex conversion in the human male and female. New York: Julian.Google Scholar
- Cerwenka, S., Nieder, T. O., & Richter-Appelt, H. (2012). Sexuelle Orientierung und Partnerwahl transsexueller Frauen und Männer vor körpermedizinischen geschlechtsanpassenden Maßnahmen [Sexual orientation and partner-choice of transsexual women and men before gender-confirming interventions]. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 62, 214–222. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1309030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coleman, E., Adler, R., Bockting, W., Botzer, M., Brown, G., Cohen-Kettenis, P., … Zucker, K. (2011). Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People, Version 7. International Journal of Transgenderism, 13, 165–232.Google Scholar
- Fisk, N. M. (1973). Gender dysphoria syndrome (The how, what, and why of a disease). In D. R. Laub & P. Gandy (Eds.), Proceedings of the second interdisciplinary symposium on gender dysphoria syndrome (pp. 7–14). Palo Alto, CA: Standford University Press.Google Scholar
- Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.Google Scholar
- Nieder, T. O., Herff, M., Cerwenka, S., Preuss, W. F., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., De Cuypere, G., … Richter-Appelt, H. (2011). Age of onset and sexual orientation in transsexual males and females. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8, 783–791. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02142.x.
- Nieder, T. O., & Richter-Appelt, H. (2012). Transsexualität und Geschlechtsdysphorie [Transsexualism and gender dysphoria]. Gynäkologie und Gynäkologische Onkologie, 8, 60–71.Google Scholar
- Paap, M. C. S., Kreukels, B. P. C., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Richter-Appelt, H., de Cuypere, G., & Haraldsen, I. R. (2011). Assessing the utility of diagnostic criteria: A multisite study on gender identity disorder. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 8, 180–190. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.02066.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh, D., Deogracias, J. J., Johnson, L. L., Bradley, S. J., Kibblewhite, S. J., Owen-Anderson, A., … Zucker, K. J. (2010). The Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults: Further validity evidence. Journal of Sex Research, 47, 49–58. doi: 10.1080/00224490902898728.
- Steensma, T. D., Kreukels, B. P. C., Jürgensen, M., Thyen, U., de Vries, A. L. C., & Cohen Kettenis, P. T. (2013). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale: A validation study. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar