Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 551–558 | Cite as

Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults

  • Catharina Schneider
  • Susanne Cerwenka
  • Timo O. Nieder
  • Peer Briken
  • Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
  • Griet De Cuypere
  • Ira R. Haraldsen
  • Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels
  • Hertha Richter-AppeltEmail author
Original Paper


This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.


Gender dysphoria Transsexualism Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults DSM-5 



We are most grateful to all persons who made this research possible, especially the participants of this study. We would also like to thank the collaborating medical and psychosocial staff and colleagues of all four clinics in Belgium, in the Netherlands, in Norway, and in Hamburg. Further, we would like to especially thank the Editor, for his thoughtful comments and his input regarding the statistical analyses. The first author is especially grateful for his patience and support in the process.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catharina Schneider
    • 1
  • Susanne Cerwenka
    • 1
  • Timo O. Nieder
    • 1
  • Peer Briken
    • 1
  • Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
    • 2
  • Griet De Cuypere
    • 3
  • Ira R. Haraldsen
    • 4
  • Baudewijntje P. C. Kreukels
    • 2
  • Hertha Richter-Appelt
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Sex Research and Forensic Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial MedicineUniversity Medical Center Hamburg-EppendorfHamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Medical PsychologyVU University Medical Center AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Sexology and Gender ProblemsUniversity Hospital GhentGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Neuropsychiatry and Psychosomatic MedicineRikshospitalet OsloOsloNorway

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