Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 1299–1315 | Cite as

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Gay Male Sexual Difficulties Scale

  • Lorraine K. McDonagh
  • Ian Stewart
  • Melanie A. Morrison
  • Todd G. MorrisonEmail author
Original Paper


Sexual difficulties (i.e., disturbances in normal sexual responding) have the potential to significantly and negatively affect men’s social and psychological well-being. However, a review of published measurement tools indicates that most have limited applicability to gay men, and none offer a nuanced understanding of sexual difficulties, as experienced by members of this population. To address this omission, the Gay Male Sexual Difficulties Scale (GMSDS) was developed using a sequential mixed-methods approach. The 25-item GMSDS uses a 6-point frequency Likert-type response format and examines: difficulties with receptive and insertive anal intercourse (5 items each); erectile difficulties (4 items); foreskin difficulties (4 items); body embarrassment (4 items); and seminal fluid concerns (3 items). The measure’s scale score dimensionality, assessed using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, as well as scale score reliability and validity (e.g., known-groups and convergent) was tested and deemed to be satisfactory. Limitations of the current series of studies and directions for future research are discussed.


Sexual dysfunction Gay men Sexuality Psychometrics Sexual behavior 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lorraine K. McDonagh
    • 1
  • Ian Stewart
    • 2
  • Melanie A. Morrison
    • 3
  • Todd G. Morrison
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Department of Primary Care and Population HealthUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.School of PsychologyNational University of Ireland GalwayGalwayIreland
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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