Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 44, Issue 8, pp 2151–2159 | Cite as

Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into the Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia

  • Fiona Dyshniku
  • Michelle E. Murray
  • Rachel L. Fazio
  • Amy D. Lykins
  • James M. Cantor
Original Paper

Abstract

Evidence is steadily accumulating to support a neurodevelopmental basis for pedophilia. This includes increased incidence of non-right-handedness, which is a result primarily of prenatal neural development and solidified very early in life. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs; superficial deviations from typical morphological development, such as un-detached earlobes) also develop only prenatally, suggesting them as another potential marker of atypical physiological development during the prenatal period among pedophiles. This study administered the Waldrop Physical Anomaly Scale to assess the prevalence of MPAs in a clinical sample of men referred for assessment following a sexual assault, or another illegal or clinically significant sexual behavior. Significant associations emerged between MPA indices and indicators of pedophilia, including penile responses to depictions of children, number of child victims, and possession of child pornography. Moreover, greater sexual attraction to children was associated with an elevated craniofacial-to-peripheral anomalies ratio. The overall sample demonstrated a greater number of MPAs relative to prior samples of individuals with schizophrenia as well as to healthy controls.

Keywords

Anthropometry Minor physical anomalies Pedophilia Phallometry Prenatal development 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grants 79276 and 89719 to James M. Cantor.

References

  1. Akabaliev, V. H., & Sivkov, S. T. (2003). Sexual dimorphism in minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44, 341–348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akabaliev, V. H., Sivkov, S. T., Mantarkov, M., & Ahmed-Popova, F. (2011). Minor physical anomalies in patients with bipolar I disorder and normal controls. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135, 193–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker, J. G., & Howell, R. J. (1992). The plethysmograph: A review of recent literature. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 20, 13–25.Google Scholar
  4. Blanchard, R., Christensen, B. K., Strong, S. M., Cantor, J. M., Kuban, M. E., Klassen, P., & Blak, T. (2002). Retrospective self-reports of childhood accidents causing unconsciousness in phallometrically diagnosed pedophiles. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 511–526.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blanchard, R., Klassen, P., Dickey, R., Kuban, M. E., & Blak, T. (2001). Sensitivity and specificity of the phallometric test for pedophilia in nonadmitting sex offenders. Psychological Assessment, 13, 118–126.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchard, R., Kolla, N. J., Cantor, J. M., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R., Kuban, M. E., & Blak, T. (2007). IQ, handedness, and pedophilia in adult male patients stratified by referral source. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 285–309.Google Scholar
  7. Blanchard, R., Kuban, M. E., Klassen, P., Dickey, R., Christensen, B. K., Cantor, J. M., & Blak, T. (2003). Self-reported injuries before and after age 13 in pedophilic and non-pedophilic men referred for clinical assessment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 573–581.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blanchard, R., Lykins, A. D., Wherrett, D., Kuban, M. E., Cantor, J. M., Blak, T., … Klassen, P. E. (2009). Pedophilia, hebephilia, and the DSM–V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 335–350.Google Scholar
  9. Cantor, J. M., & Blanchard, R. (2012). White matter volumes in pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 749–752.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., Christensen, B. K., Dickey, R., Klassen, P. E., Beckstead, A. L., … Kuban, M. (2004). Intelligence, memory, and handedness in pedophilia. Neuropsychology, 18, 3–14.Google Scholar
  11. Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., Robichaud, L. K., & Christensen, B. K. (2005a). Quantitative reanalysis of aggregate data on IQ in sexual offenders. Psychological Bulletin, 131, 555–568.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cantor, J. M., Kabani, N., Christensen, B. K., Zipursky, R. B., Barbaree, H. E., Dickey, R., … Blanchard, R. (2008). Cerebral white matter deficiencies in pedophilic men. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 167–183.Google Scholar
  13. Cantor, J. M., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R., Christensen, B. K., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., … Blanchard, R. (2005b). Handedness in pedophilia and hebephilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 447–459.Google Scholar
  14. Cantor, J. M., Kuban, M. E., Blak, T., Klassen, P. E., Dickey, R., & Blanchard, R. (2007). Physical height in pedophilia and hebephilia. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 395–407.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Compton, M. T., Bollini, A. M., McKenzie Mack, L., Kryda, A. D., Rutland, J., Weiss, P. S., … Walker, E. F. (2007). Neurological soft signs and minor physical anomalies in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, their first-degree biological relatives, and non-psychiatric controls. Schizophrenia Research, 94, 64–73.Google Scholar
  17. Compton, M. T., Chan, R. C. K., Walker, E. F., & Buckley, P. F. (2011). Minor physical anomalies: Potentially informative vestiges of fetal development disruptions in schizophrenia. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 29, 245–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Compton, M. T., & Walker, E. F. (2009). Physical manifestations of neurodevelopmental disruption: Are minor physical anomalies part of the syndrome of schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 425–436.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fazio, R. L., & Cantor, J. M. (2015). Factor structure of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory versus the Fazio Laterality Inventory in a population with established atypical handedness. Applied Neuropsychology, 22, 156–160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fazio, R. L., Lykins, A. D., & Cantor, J. M. (2014). Elevated rates of atypical handedness in paedophilia: Theory and implications. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body Brain and Cognition, 9, 690–704.Google Scholar
  21. Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1989). Phallometric diagnosis of pedophilia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 100–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Glueck, B. C. (1955). Final report: Research project for the study and treatment of persons convicted of crimes involving sexual aberrations. June 1952 to June 1955. New York: New York State Department of Mental Hygiene.Google Scholar
  23. Gourion, D., Goldberger, C., Bourdel, M. C., Jean Bayle, F., Lôo, H., & Krebs, M. O. (2004). Minor physical anomalies in patients with schizophrenia and their parents: Prevalence and pattern of craniofacial abnormalities. Psychiatry Research, 125, 21–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Green, M. F., Satz, P., & Christenson, C. (1994). Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia patients, bipolar patients, and their siblings. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 433–440.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Green, M. F., Satz, P., Gaier, D. J., Ganzell, S., & Kharabi, F. (1989). Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15, 91–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gualtieri, C. T., & Hicks, R. E. (1985). An immunoreactive theory of selective male affliction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 427–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanson, R. K., & Bussière, M. T. (1998). Predicting relapse: A meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 348–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, K. E. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1154–1163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hata, K., Iida, J., Iwasaka, H., Negoro, H., & Kishimoto, T. (2003). Association between minor physical anomalies and lateral ventricular enlargement in childhood and adolescent onset schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 108, 147–151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hepper, P. G., McCartney, G. R., & Shannon, A. E. (1998). Lateralised behaviour in first trimester human foetuses. Neuropsychologia, 36, 531–534.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hepper, P. G., Wells, D. L., & Lynch, C. (2005). Thumb sucking is related to postnatal handedness. Neuropsychologia, 43, 313–315.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Howell, D. C. (2013). Statistical methods for psychology (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  33. Ismail, B., Cantor-Graae, E., & McNeil, T. F. (1998). Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and their siblings. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1695–1702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jones, K. L. (1997). Smith’s recognizable patterns of human malformation (5th ed.). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  35. Kalter, H. (2003). Teratology in the 20th century Environmental causes of congenital malformations in humans and how they were established. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 25, 131–282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Keppel, G., & Wickens, T. D. (2004). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Kuban, M., Barbaree, H. E., & Blanchard, R. (1999). A comparison of volume and circumference phallometry: Response magnitude and method agreement. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 28, 345–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Lane, A., Kinsella, A., Murphy, P., Byrne, M., Keenan, J., Colgan, K., … O’Callaghan, E. (1997). The anthropometric assessment of dysmorphic features in schizophrenia as an index of its developmental origins. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1155–1164.Google Scholar
  39. Lloyd, T., Dazzan, P., Dean, K., Park, S. B. G., Fearon, P., Doody, G. A., … Jones, P. B. (2008). Minor physical anomalies in patients with first-episode psychosis: Their frequency and diagnostic specificity. Psychological Medicine, 38, 71–77.Google Scholar
  40. Marden, P. M., Smith, D. W., & McDonald, J. (1964). Congenital anomalies in the newborn infant, including minor variations. Journal of Pediatrics, 64, 357–371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Marino, R. V., Scholl, T. O., Karp, R. J., Yanoff, J. M., & Hetherington, J. (1987). Minor physical anomalies and learning disability: What is the prenatal component? Journal of the National Medical Association, 79, 37–39.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. McCartney, G., & Hepper, P. G. (1999). Development of lateralized behaviour in the human fetus from 12 to 27 weeks’ gestation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 83–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. McGrath, J., El-Saadi, O., Grim, V., Cardy, S., Chapple, B., Chant, D., … Mowry, B. (2002). Minor physical anomalies and quantitative measures of the head and face in patients with psychosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 458–464.Google Scholar
  44. McGrath, J. J., Van Os, J., Hoyos, C., Jones, P. B., Harvey, I., & Murray, R. M. (1995). Minor physical anomalies in psychoses: Associations with clinical and putative aetiological variables. Schizophrenia Research, 18, 9–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. McPhail, I. V., & Cantor, J. M. (2015). Pedophilia, height, and the magnitude of the association: A research note. Deviant Behavior, 36, 288–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mellan, J., Nedoma, K., & Pondĕlíčková, J. (1969). Somatosexuální nálezy u pedofilních mužů [Somatosexual findings in pedophilic men]. Československá Psychiatrie, 65, 30–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Miller, M. T., Strömland, K., Ventura, L., Johansson, M., Bandim, J. M., & Gillberg, C. (2005). Autism associated with conditions characterized by developmental errors in early embryogenesis: A mini review. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 23, 201–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97–113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ozgen, H. M., Hop, J. W., Hox, J. J., Beemer, F. A., & Van Engeland, H. (2010). Minor physical anomalies in autism: A meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 300–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Seto, M. C., Cantor, J. M., & Blanchard, R. (2006). Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 610–615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sivkov, S. T., & Akabaliev, V. H. (2003). Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenic patients and normal controls. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 66, 222–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Taylor, D., Myers, W. C., Robbins, L., & Barnard, G. W. (1993). An anthropometric study of pedophiles and rapists. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38, 765–768.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Tenyi, T., Trixler, M., Csabi, G., & Jeges, S. (2004). Minor physical anomalies in non-familial unipolar recurrent major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 79, 259–262.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Trixler, T., Tenyi, T., Csabi, G., & Szabo, R. (2001). Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Schizophrenia Research, 52, 195–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Waddington, J. L., Lane, A., Larkin, C., & O’Callaghan, E. (1999). The neurodevelopmental basis of schizophrenia: Clinical clues from cerebro-craniofacial dysmorphogenesis, and the roots of a lifetime trajectory of disease. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 46, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Waldrop, M. F., Halverson, C. F., & Shetterley, K. (1989). Manual for assessing minor physical anomalies (ETS Test Collection Call No. TC006559). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  57. Weinberg, S. M., Jenkins, E. A., Marazita, M. L., & Maher, B. S. (2007). Minor physical anomalies in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Research, 89, 72–85.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fiona Dyshniku
    • 1
  • Michelle E. Murray
    • 2
  • Rachel L. Fazio
    • 2
  • Amy D. Lykins
    • 3
  • James M. Cantor
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada
  2. 2.Sexual Behaviours ClinicCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  3. 3.School of Behavioural, Cognitive, and Social SciencesUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations