Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 207–217 | Cite as

Sexual Compulsivity Scale, Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory, and Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory: Translation, Adaptation, and Validation for Use in Brazil

  • Marco de T. Scanavino
  • Ana Ventuneac
  • H. Jonathon Rendina
  • Carmita H. N. Abdo
  • Hermano Tavares
  • Maria L. S. do Amaral
  • Bruna Messina
  • Sirlene C. dos Reis
  • João P. L. B. Martins
  • Marina C. Gordon
  • Julie C. Vieira
  • Jeffrey T. Parsons
Original Paper

Abstract

Epidemiological, behavioral, and clinical data on sexual compulsivity in Brazil are very limited. This study sought to adapt and validate the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the 22-item version of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI-22), and the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) for use in Brazil. A total of 153 participants underwent psychiatric assessment and completed self-reported measures. The adaptation process of the instruments from English to Portuguese followed the guidelines of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. The reliability and validity of the HDSI criteria were evaluated and the construct validity of all measures was examined. For the SCS and HDSI, factor analysis revealed one factor for each measure. For the CSBI-22, four factors were retained although we only calculated the scores of two factors (control and violence). All scores had good internal consistency (alpha >.75), presented high temporal stability (>.76), discriminated between patients and controls, and presented strong (ρ > .81) correlations with the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (except for the violence domain = .40) and moderate correlations with the Impulsive Sensation Seeking domain of the Zuckerman Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ρ between .43 and .55). The sensitivity of the HDSI was 71.93 % and the specificity was 100 %. All measures showed very good psychometric properties. The SCS, the HDSI, and the control domain of the CSBI-22 seemed to measure theoretically similar constructs, as they were highly correlated (ρ > .85). The findings support the conceptualization of hypersexuality as a cluster of problematic symptoms that are highly consistent across a variety of measures.

Keywords

Sexual compulsivity Hypersexual disorder Compulsive sexual behavior HIV Psychometric properties 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by Grants from the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Grant 2010/15921-6.

References

  1. Aluja, A., García, L. F., Cuevas, L., & García, O. (2007). The MCMI-III personality disorders scores predicted by the NEO-FFI-R and the ZKPQ-50-CC: A comparative study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21, 58–71. doi: 10.1521/pedi.2007.21.1.58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2010). Hypersexual Disorder. Severity. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/_layouts/login.aspx?ReturnUrl=%2fProposedRevisions%2fPages%2fproposedrevision.aspx%3frid%3d415&rid=415. Accessed 12 May 2011.
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2012). News Release: American Psychiatric Association Board of Trustees approves DSM-5. Diagnostic manual passes major milestone before May 2013 publication. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Advocacy%20and%20Newsroom/Press%20Releases/2012%20Releases/12-43-DSM-5-BOT-Vote-News-Release--FINAL--3-.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2012.
  4. Ballester Arnal, R., Gómez Martínez, S., Gil Llario, M. D., & Salmerón Sánchez, P. (2012). Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS): Adaptation and validation in Spanish population. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 39, 526–540. doi: 10.1080/0092623X.2012.665816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benotsch, E. G., Kalichman, S. C., & Kelly, J. A. (1999). Sexual compulsivity and substance use in HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men: Prevalence and predictors of high-risk behaviors. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 857–868. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(99)00056-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benotsch, E. G., Kalichman, S. C., & Pinkerton, S. D. (2001). Sexual compulsivity in HIV-positive men and women: Prevalence, predictors and consequences of high risk sexual behaviors. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8, 83–89. doi: 10.1080/10720160127561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Black, D. W. (2000). The epidemiology and phenomenology of compulsive sexual behavior. CNS Spectrums, 5, 26–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carnes, P. (1989). Contrary to love: Helping the sexual addict. Minneapolis, MN: CompCare Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, P., Lavielle, P., & Martínez, H. (2003). Learning from pain scales: Patient perspective. Journal of Rheumatology, 30, 1584–1588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Coleman, E., Miner, M., Ohlerking, F., & Raymond, N. (2001). Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory: A preliminary study of reliability and validity. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 27, 325–332. doi: 10.1080/009262301317081070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cooper, A., Delmonico, D. L., & Burg, R. (2000). Cybersex users, abusers, and compulsives: New findings and implications. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 7, 5–29. doi: 10.1080/10720160008400205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delmonico, D. L., Bubenzer, D. L., & West, J. D. (1998). Assessing sexual addiction with the Sexual Dependency Inventory Revised. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 5, 179–187. doi: 10.1080/10720169808400161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dodge, B., Reece, M., Cole, S. L., & Sandfort, T. G. (2004). Sexual compulsivity among heterosexual college students. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 343–350. doi: 10.1080/00224490409552241.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gomà-i-Freixanet, M., & Valero Ventura, S. (2008). Spanish normative data of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire in a general population sample. Psicothema, 20, 324–330. Retrieved from http://www.psicothema.com/PDF/3468.pdf. Accessed 22 Dec 2012.
  15. Goodman, A. (2001). What’s in a name? Terminology for designating a syndrome of driven sexual behavior. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8, 191–213. doi: 10.1080/107201601753459919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gullette, D. L., & Lyons, M. A. (2005). Sexual sensation seeking, compulsivity, and HIV risk behaviors in college students. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 22, 47–60. doi: 10.1207/s15327655jchn2201_5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gulzun, M., Gulcat, Z., & Aydin, H. (2007). Treatment of compulsive sexual behavior with clomipramine and valproic acid. Clinical Drug Investigation, 27, 219–223. doi: 10.2165/00044011-200727030-00005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hook, J. N., Hook, J. P., Davis, D. E., Worthington, E. L., & Penberthy, J. K. (2010). Measuring sexual addiction and compulsivity: A critical review of instruments. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 36, 227–260. doi: 10.1080/00926231003719673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kafka, M. (2010). Hypersexual disorder: A proposed diagnosis for DSM-V. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 377–400. doi: 10.1007/s10508-009-9574-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kafka, M. P. (2013). The development and evolution of the criteria for a newly proposed diagnosis for DSM-5: Hypersexual disorder. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 20, 19–26. doi: 10.1080/10720162.2013.768127.Google Scholar
  21. Kalichman, S. C., & Cain, D. (2004). The relationship between indicators of sexual compulsivity and high risk sexual practices among men and women receiving services from a sexually transmitted infection clinic. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 235–241. doi: 10.1080/00224490409552231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kalichman, S. C., Johnson, J. R., Adair, V., Rompa, D., Multhauf, K., & Kelly, J. A. (1994). Sexual sensation seeking: Scale development and predicting AIDS-risk behavior among homosexually active men. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62, 385–397. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6203_1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. (1995). Sexual sensation seeking and sexual compulsivity scales: Reliability, validity, and predicting HIV risk behavior. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65, 586–601. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6503_16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kalichman, S. C., & Rompa, D. (2001). The Sexual Compulsivity Scale: further development and use with HIV-positive persons. Journal of Personality Assessment, 76, 379–395. doi: 10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_02.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuzma, J. M., & Black, D. W. (2008). Epidemiology, prevalence, and natural history of compulsive sexual behavior. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 31, 603–611. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2008.06.005. S0193-953X(08)00072-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Langstrom, N., & Hanson, R. K. (2006). High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: Correlates and predictors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 37–52. doi: 10.1007/s10508-006-8993-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McBride, K. R., Reece, M., & Sanders, S. A. (2008). Using the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to predict outcomes of sexual behavior in young adults. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 15, 97–115. doi: 10.1080/10720160802035816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Miner, M. H., Coleman, E., Center, B. A., Ross, M., & Rosser, B. R. (2007). The Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory: Psychometric properties. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 579–587. doi: 10.1007/s10508-006-9127-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Morgenstern, J., Muench, F., O’Leary, A., Wainberg, M., Parsons, J. T., Hollander, E., … Irvin, T. (2011). Non-paraphilic compulsive sexual behavior and psychiatric co-morbidities in gay and bisexual men. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 18, 114–134. doi: 10.1080/10720162.2011.593420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Muench, F., Morgenstern, J., Hollander, E., Irwin, T., O’Leary, A., Parsons, J. T., … Lai, B (2007). The consequences of compulsive sexual behavior: The preliminary reliability and validity of the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Consequences scale. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 14, 207–220. doi: 10.1080/10720160701480493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parsons, J. T., Bimbi, D., & Halkitis, P. N. (2001). Sexual compulsivity among gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise on the internet. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 8, 101–112. doi: 10.1080/10720160127562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Parsons, J. T., Grov, C., & Golub, S. A. (2012). Sexual compulsivity, co-occurring psychosocial health problems, and HIV risk among gay and bisexual men: Further evidence of a syndemic. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 156–162. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300284.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Parsons, J. T., Kelly, B. C., Bimbi, D. S., Muench, F., & Morgenstern, J. (2007). Accounting for the social triggers of sexual compulsivity. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 26, 5–16. doi: 10.1300/J069v26n03_02.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Parsons, J. T., Rendina, H. J., Ventuneac, A., Cook, K. F., Grov, C., & Mustanski, B. (2013). A psychometric investigation of the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men: An item response theory analysis. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10, 3088–3101. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Raymond, N. C., Coleman, E., & Miner, M. H. (2003). Psychiatric comorbidity and compulsive/impulsive traits in compulsive sexual behavior. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 44, 370–380. doi: 10.1016/S0010-440X(03)00110-X.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Reid, R. C., Carpenter, B. N., Hook, J. N., Garos, S., Manning, J. C., Gilliland, R., … Fong, T. (2012). Report of findings in a DSM-5 field trial for hypersexual disorder. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9, 2868–2877. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02936.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Scanavino, M. D. T., Torres, R. R., Abdo, C. H., Rego, M. A., & Fernandez, F. M. (2009). Sexual compulsion and HIV transmission: A case report. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 31, 189–190. doi: 10.1590/S1516-44462009000200022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Silveira, D. X., Vieira, A. C., Palomo, V., & Silveira, E. D. (2000). Criteria validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Sexual Addiction Screening Test. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 22, 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Souza, M. A., Omar, A., & Formiga, N. S. (2006). Generalização Transcultural do Questionário de Personalidade Zuckerman-Kuhlman: Um Estudo Argentina Brasil [Transcultural Generalization of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire: A Study Argentina Brazil.]. Paper presented at the II Congresso Brasileiro Psicologia: Ciência e Profissão [II Brazilian Congress on Psychology: Science and Profession], São Paulo, Brazil. Abstract retrieved from http://www.cienciaeprofissao.com.br/anais/detalhe.cfm?idTrabalho=1732. Accessed 18 May 2013.
  40. Wainberg, M. L., Muench, F., Morgenstern, J., Hollander, E., Irwin, T. W., Parsons, J. T., … O’Leary, A. (2006). A double-blind study of citalopram versus placebo in the treatment of compulsive sexual behaviors in gay and bisexual men. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 1968–1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang, W., Hu, L., Mu, L., Chen, D., Song, Q., Zhou, M., … He, C. (2003). Functioning styles of personality disorders and five-factor normal personality traits: A correlation study in Chinese students. BMC Psychiatry, 3, 11. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-3-11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wild, D., Grove, A., Martin, M., Eremenco, S., McElroy, S., & Verjee-Lorenz, A. (2005). ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process for Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures: Report of the ISPOR Task Force for Translation and Cultural Adaptation. Value Health, 8, 94–104. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4733.2005.04054.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Womack, S. D., Hook, J. N., Ramos, M., Davis, D. E., & Penberthy, J. K. (2013). Measuring hypersexual behavior. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 20, 65–78. doi: 10.1080/10720162.2013.768126.Google Scholar
  44. World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  45. Zuckerman, M., Kuhlman, D. M., Joireman, J., Teta, P., & Kraft, M. (1993). A comparison of three structural models for personality: The Big Three, the Big Five, and the Alternative Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 757–768. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.65.4.757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco de T. Scanavino
    • 1
    • 7
  • Ana Ventuneac
    • 2
  • H. Jonathon Rendina
    • 2
    • 3
  • Carmita H. N. Abdo
    • 8
  • Hermano Tavares
    • 8
  • Maria L. S. do Amaral
    • 1
  • Bruna Messina
    • 1
  • Sirlene C. dos Reis
    • 1
  • João P. L. B. Martins
    • 1
  • Marina C. Gordon
    • 1
  • Julie C. Vieira
    • 1
  • Jeffrey T. Parsons
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Department and Institute of Psychiatry (IPq), Clínicas’ Hospital (HC)University of São Paulo Medical School (FMUSP)Sao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Center for HIV/AIDS Educational Studies and Training (CHEST)New YorkUSA
  3. 3.Basic and Applied Social Psychology Doctoral ProgramThe Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY)New YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyHunter College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY)New YorkUSA
  5. 5.Health Psychology Doctoral ProgramThe Graduate Center of the City University of New York (CUNY)New YorkUSA
  6. 6.The CUNY School of Public Health at Hunter CollegeNew YorkUSA
  7. 7.Sao PauloBrazil
  8. 8.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of São Paulo Medical School (FMUSP)Sao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations