Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 1303–1313 | Cite as

Biometric Characteristics of the Pelvis in Female-to-Male Transsexuals

  • Aneta Sitek
  • Marta Fijałkowska
  • Elżbieta Żądzińska
  • Bogusław AntoszewskiEmail author
Original Paper


The objective of the study was to evaluate the metric features of pelvises of 24 female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals as compared to control groups of 24 healthy males and 24 healthy females. The participants had their pelvises X-rayed with the same X-ray apparatus and in the same position. Seventeen measurements were taken on the basis of X-ray pictures of FtM transsexuals’ pelvises and both comparison groups. Additionally, their body height was compared. The results showed that FtM transsexuals having female body height represent an intermediate size of three pelvic features and male values of five variables. In order to develop a model based on metric variables of the pelvis that would best discriminate the FtM transsexuals, the control females, and the control males, a discriminant analysis was applied. The model included four variables out of 17 metric features: the height of the pubic symphysis, the greatest pelvic breadth, the interischial distance, and the acetabular diameter. The model was found to be the best in discriminating males from females and FtM transsexuals, but considerably less effective in discriminating transsexuals from the two control groups. The results demonstrate that a number of FtM transsexuals’ pelvic measurements reveal “masculinization,” which confirms current results demonstrating a shift in the somatometric traits of transsexual females towards male traits. A discriminant analysis based only on pelvic metric features shows some differences between the size of the pelvis and chromosomal sex in FtM transsexuals, which might indicate a biological basis for gender identity disorder.


Anthropometrics Transsexualism Sexual dimorphism Gender identity disorder Pelvis 


  1. Anderson, J. Y., & Trinkaus, E. (1998). Patterns of sexual, bilateral and interpopulational variation in human femoral neck-shaft angles. Journal of Anatomy, 192, 279–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antoszewski, B., Kasielska, A., Jędrzejczak, M., & Kruk-Jeromin, J. (2007). Knowledge of and attitude toward transsexualism among college students. Sexuality and Disability, 25, 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antoszewski, B., Kruk-Jeromin, J., & Malinowski, A. (1998). Body structure of female-to-male transsexuals. Acta Chirurgiae Plasticae, 40, 54–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Antoszewski, B., Żądzińska, E., & Foczpański, J. (2009). The metric features of teeth in female-to-male transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 351–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bao, A. M., & Swaab, D. F. (2011). Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32, 214–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bosinski, H. A., Schröder, I., Peter, M., Arndt, R., Wille, R., & Sippell, W. G. (1997). Anthropometrical measurements and androgen levels in males, females, and hormonally untreated female-to-male transsexuals. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 143–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Byrger, H. G., Yamada, Y., Bangali, M. L., McCloud, P. I., & Warne, G. L. (1991). Serum gonadotropin, sex steroid, and immunoreactive levels in the first two years of life. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 72, 682–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clement-Jones, M., Schiller, S., Rao, E., Blaschke, R. J., Zuniga, A., Zeller, R., et al. (2000). The short stature homeobox gene SHOX is involved in skeletal abnormalities in Turner syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics, 9, 695–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorner, G., Poppe, I., Stahl, F., Kölzsch, J., & Uebelhack, R. (1991). Gene- and environment-dependent neuroendocrine etiogenesis of homosexuality and transsexualism. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology, 98, 141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Durić, M., Rakočević, Z., & Donić, D. (2005). The reliability of sex determination of skeletons from forensic context in the Balkans. Forensic Science International, 147, 159–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fajkowska-Stanik, M. (1999). Etiology of transsexualism. Psychiatria Polska, 5, 183–198.Google Scholar
  12. Fink, B., Neave, N., & Manning, J. T. (2003). Second to fourth digit ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-chest ratio: Their relationships in heterosexual men and women. Annals of Human Biology, 30, 728–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garcia-Falgueras, A., & Swaab, D. F. (2008). A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: Relationship to gender identity. Brain, 131, 3132–3146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garn, S. M., & Rohmann, C. G. (1962). X-linked inheritance of developmental timing in man. Nature, 196, 695–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gooren, L. (1999). Hormonal sex reassignment. International Journal of Transgenderism, 3, 3.Google Scholar
  16. Gooren, L. (2006). The biology of human psychosexual differentiation. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 589–601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Green, R. (2000). Family co-occurrence of “gender dysphoria”: Ten sibling or parent–child pairs. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 499–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Green, R., & Keverne, E. B. (2000). The disparate maternal aunt–uncle ratio in male transsexuals: An explanation invoking genomic imprinting. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 202, 55–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Imieliński, K., Dulko, S., & Filar, M. (1997). Transpozycje płci. Transseksualizm i inne zaburzenia identyfikacji płciowej. Warszawa: WPAWS.Google Scholar
  20. Kranioti, E. F., İşcan, M. Y., & Michalodimitrakis, M. (2008). Craniometric analysis of the modern Cretan population. Forensic Science International, 180, 110e1–110e5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krogman, W. M., & İşcan, M. Y. (1986). The human skeleton in forensic medicine. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  22. Kula, K., & Słowikowska-Hilczer, J. (2000). Różnicowanie płciowe mózgu człowieka. Przegląd Lekarski, 57, 41–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kula, K., & Słowikowska-Hilczer, J. (2003). Konsekwencje zaburzeń działania hormonów płciowych w obrębie ośrodkowego układu nerwowego: zmiany behawioralne, anatomiczne i czynnościowe. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska, 37, 19–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee, M. C., & Eberson, C. P. (2006). Growth and development of the child’s hip. Orthopedic Clinics of North America, 37, 119–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loth, S. R., & Henneberg, M. (2001). Sexually dimorphic mandibular morphology in the first few years of life. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 115, 179–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Luo, Y. C. (1995). Sex determination from the pubis by discriminant function analysis. Forensic Science International, 74, 89–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Malinowski, A., Antoszewski, B., & Kruk-Jeromin, J. (1996). The anthropologic characteristics of the head and hairiness of the body of female-to-male transsexuals. Review of Sexology, Journal of Central Europe, 2, 58–64.Google Scholar
  28. Nelson, T. L., Vogler, G. P., Pederson, N. L., & Miles, T. P. (1999). Genetic and environmental influences on waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference in an older Swedish twin population. International Journal of Obesity, 23, 449–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Patil, K. R., & Mody, R. N. (2005). Determination of sex by discriminant function analysis and stature by regression analysis: A lateral cephalometric study. Forensic Science International, 147, 175–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Perera, D. M., McGarrigle, H. H. G., Lawrence, D. M., & Lucas, M. (1987). Amniotic fluid testosterone and testosterone glucuronide levels in the determination of foetal sex. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, 26, 273–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Phenice, T. W. (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30, 297–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Reinisch, J. M., Ziemba-Davis, M., & Sanders, S. A. (1991). Hormonal contributions to sexually dimorphic behavioral development in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 16, 213–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rissech, C., García, M., & Malgosa, A. (2003). Sex and age diagnosis by ischium morphometric analysis. Forensic Science International, 135, 188–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rösing, F. W., Graw, M., Marré, B., Ritz-Timme, S., Rothschild, M. A., Rötzscher, K., et al. (2007). Recommendations for the forensic diagnosis of sex and age from skeletons. Homo, 58, 75–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ross, J. L., Scott, C., Marttila, P., Kowal, K., Nass, A., Papenhausen, P., et al. (2001). Phenotypes associated with SHOX deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 5674–5680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Scheuer, L., Black, S., & Christie, A. (2000). Developmental juvenile osteology. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Segal, N. L. (2007). Twins and transsexualism: An update and a preview. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10, 894–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Steyn, M., & İşcan, M. Y. (2008). Metric sex determination from the pelvis in modern Greeks. Forensic Science International, 179, 86.e1–86.e6.Google Scholar
  39. Swaab, D. F., & Hofman, M. A. (1995). Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus in relation to gender and sexual orientation. Trends in Neuroscience, 18, 264–270.Google Scholar
  40. Tanner, J. M., Prader, A., Habich, H., & Ferguson-Smith, M. A. (1959). Genes on the Y chromosome influencing rate of maturation in man: Skeletal age studies in children with Klinefelter’s (XXY) and Turner’s (XO) syndromes. Lancet, 22, 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uberlaker, D., & Volk, C. (2002). A test of Phenice method for the estimation of sex. Journal of Forensic Science, 47, 19–24.Google Scholar
  42. Ulijaszek, S. J., & Lourie, J. A. (1994). Anthropometry: The individual and the population. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wells, J. C. (2007). Sexual dimorphism of body composition. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 21, 415–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zucker, K. J., & Green, R. (1993). Psychological and familial aspects of gender identity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2, 513–542.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aneta Sitek
    • 1
  • Marta Fijałkowska
    • 2
  • Elżbieta Żądzińska
    • 1
  • Bogusław Antoszewski
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of LodzLodzPoland
  2. 2.Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Institute of SurgeryMedical University of LodzLodzPoland

Personalised recommendations