Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 1161–1169

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors

  • Cecilia Kjellgren
  • Gisela Priebe
  • Carl Göran Svedin
  • Niklas Långström
Original Paper

Abstract

Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.

Keywords

Sexual violence Conduct problems Sexual behavior Pornography Population survey Male youth 

References

  1. Abbey, A., & McAuslan, P. (2004). A longitudinal examination of male college students’ perpetration of sexual assault. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 747–756.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbey, A., McAuslan, P., & Ross, L. T. (1998). Sexual assault perpetration by college men: The role of alcohol, misperception of sexual intent, and sexual beliefs and experiences. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 167–195.Google Scholar
  3. Arseneault, L., Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., Taylor, P., & Silva, P. (2000). Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: Results from the Dunedin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 979–986.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (2005). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 1–18). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bonino, S., Ciairano, S., Rabaglietti, E., & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 265–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borowsky, I. W., Hogan, M., & Ireland, M. (1997). Adolescent sexual aggression: Risk and protective factors. Pediatrics, 100(6). Available at: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/100/6/e7. Accessed 17 February 2007.
  7. Burt, M. (1980). Cultural myths and supports for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 217–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Craissati, J., McClurg, G., & Browne, K. (2002). The parental bonding experiences of sex offenders: A comparison between child molesters and rapists. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 909–921.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Derogatis, L. R. (1990). SCL-90: Administration, scoring and procedure manual for the revised version of the SCL-90. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University School of Medicine.Google Scholar
  10. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Woodward, L. J. (2000). The stability of child abuse reports: A longitudinal study of the reporting behaviour of young adults. Psychological Medicine, 30, 529–544.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ganzeboom, H. B. G., de Graaf, P. M., & Treiman, D. J. (1992). A standard international socio-economic index of occupational status. Social Sciences Research, 21, 1–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, K. E. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1154–1163.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hardt, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: Review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 260–273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jessor, R., Van den Bos, J., Vanderryn, J., Costa, F. M., & Turbin, M. S. (1995). Protective factors in adolescent problem behavior: Moderator effects and developmental change. Developmental Psychology, 31, 923–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kolivas, E. D., & Gross, A. M. (2007). Assessing sexual aggression: Addressing the gap between rape victimization and perpetration prevalence rates. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koss, M. P., & Dinero, T. E. (1988). Predictors of sexual aggression among a national sample of male college students. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 528, 133–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Koss, M. P., Gidycz, C. A., & Wisniewski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 162–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Krug, E. G., Mercy, J. A., Dahlberg, L. L., & Zwi, A. B. (2002). The world report on violence and health. Lancet, 360, 1083–1088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lodico, M., Gruber, E., & DiClemente, R. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and coercive sex among school-based adolescents in a midwestern state. Journal of Adolescent Health, 18, 211–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Malamuth, N. (2003). Criminal and noncriminal sexual aggressors: Integrating psychopathy in a hierarchical-mediational confluence model. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 989, 33–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Malamuth, N. M., Sockloskie, R. J., Koss, M. P., & Tanaka, J. S. (1991). Characteristics of aggressors against women: Testing a model using a national sample of college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 670–681.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mossige, S. (2001). Ungdoms holdninger til seksuelle krenkelser og overgrep [Attitudes to sexual harassment and abuse among youth]. NOVA Rapport 16/01. Oslo, Norway: NOVA.Google Scholar
  23. Mossige, S., Ainsaar, M., & Svedin, C. G. (2007). The Baltic sea regional study on adolescent sexuality. Oslo, Norway: NOVA.Google Scholar
  24. National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ). (2007). Swedish Crime Survey 2006: Victimization, fear of crime and public confidence in the criminal justice. Stockholm, Sweden: National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ). Available at: www.bra.se. Accessed 5 November 2007.
  25. Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–10.Google Scholar
  26. Schwarz, N. (1999). Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers. American Psychologist, 54, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Seto, M. C., & Lalumière, M. L. (2009). What is so special about male adolescent sexual offending? A review and test of explanations using meta-analysis. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  28. Statistics Sweden. (2007). Population Statistics. Available in Swedish at: www.ssd.scb.se/databaser/makro/Produkt.asp?produktid=UF0507. Accessed 5 November 2007.
  29. Sundell, K., El-Khouri, B., & Månsson, J. (2005). Elever på vift. Vilka är skolkarna? [Students on the loose. Who are the truants?]. City of Stockholm Research and Evaluation Unit. R&D Report 2005:15. Available in Swedish at http://www.stockholm.se/OmStockholm/Forskning-och-rapporter/Rapporter/2005-/. Accessed 9 June 2009.
  30. Uppsala kommun. (2005). Utvärdering av elevers frånvaro i gymnasieskolan i Uppsala kommun [The evaluation unit of the Uppsala local authority: 2005:6. Evaluation of students’ absence from high school in Uppsala]. Available in Swedish at http://www.uppsala.se/uve. Accessed 6 March 2007.
  31. van Wijk, A., Vermeiren, R., Loeber, R., ’t Hart-Kerkhoffs, L., Doreleijers, T., & Bullens, R. (2006). Juvenile sex offenders compared to non-sex offenders: A review of the literature 1995–2005. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 7, 227–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ward, T., & Beech, A. R. (2004). The etiology of risk: A preliminary model. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 4, 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Whitaker, D. J., Le, B., Hanson, R. K., Baker, C. K., McMahon, P. M., Ryan, G., et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect, 32, 529–548.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Widom, C. S., & Morris, S. (1997). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization, Part 2: Childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Assessment, 9, 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. World Health Organization. (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cecilia Kjellgren
    • 1
  • Gisela Priebe
    • 1
  • Carl Göran Svedin
    • 3
  • Niklas Långström
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Clinical Sciences LundLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.Centre for Violence Prevention, Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, IKE, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Linköping UniversityLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations