Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 794–809 | Cite as

A Dynamic-Ecological Model of Identity Formation and Conflict among Bisexually-Behaving African-American Men

  • Patrick A. Wilson
ORIGINAL PAPER: BLACK AND LATINO MALE BISEXUALITIES SPECIAL SECTION

Abstract

Understanding how ethnic, sexual, and masculine (ESM) identities form and possibly conflict among African-American men may be important to consider in explaining bisexual behavior in this population. It is proposed that the bisexual behavior among African-American who are primarily sexually attracted to other men may be a function of conflicting ESM identities. Comprehensively understanding the formation and conflict of ESM identities requires an examination of individuals, social contexts, and interactions between individuals and contexts. The current article presents a dynamic-ecological model of identity formation and conflict among ethnic minority men who have sex with men and uses the model to demonstrate how bisexual behavior among African-American men may be examined.

Keywords

African-American men Bisexual behavior Ethnic identity Sexual identity Masculine identity Ecological factors 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Ph.D., John L. Peterson, Ph.D., Kathleen Sikkema, Ph.D., and Jeannette Ickovics, Ph.D. for their comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. The author also wishes to express his sincere thanks to the editors of the special issue, Theo Sandfort, Ph.D. and Brian Dodge, Ph.D., and the journal editor, Ken Zucker, Ph.D., for their insightful and constructive comments on this article.

References

  1. Abreu, J. M., Goodyear, R. K., Campos, A., & Newcomb, M. D. (2000). Ethnic belonging and traditional masculinity ideology among African Americans, European Americans, and Latinos. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 1, 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, G. R., & Marshall, S. K. (1996). A developmental social psychology of identity: understanding the person-in-context. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 429–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akbar, N. (1991). Visions for Black men. Tallahassee, FL: Mind Productions.Google Scholar
  4. Beeker, C., Kraft, J. M., Peterson, J. L., & Stokes, J. P. (1998). Influences on sexual risk behavior in young African-American men who have sex with men. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 2, 59–67.Google Scholar
  5. Bem, D. J. (1996). Exotic becomes erotic: A developmental theory of sexual orientation. Psychological Review, 103, 320–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bem, D. J. (2000). Exotic becomes erotic: Interpreting the biological correlates of sexual orientation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 531–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair, J. M., Fleming, P. L., & Karon, J. M. (2002). Trends in AIDS incidence and survival among racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men, United States, 1990–1999. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 31, 339–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowser, B. P. (1991). Black male adolescents: Parenting and education in community context. Lanham, MD: University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). Developmental ecology through space and time: A future perspective. In P. Moen, G. H. Elder, & K. Lusher (Eds.), Examining lives in context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development (pp. 619–647). Washington, DC: APA Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Graber, J. A. (1999). What’s sex got to do with it? The development of sexual identities during adolescence. In R. J. Contrada & R. D. Ashmore (Eds.), Self, social identity, and physical health: Interdisciplinary exploration (pp. 155–182). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brooks-Gunn, J., & Mathews, W. (1979). He and she: How children develop their sex-role identity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Burke, P. J. (1991). Identity processes and social stress. American Sociological Review, 56, 836–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bush, L. (1999). Am I a man? A literature review engaging the sociohistorical dynamics of Black manhood in the United States. Western Journal of Black Studies, 23, 49–57.Google Scholar
  15. Caldwell, C. H., Zimmerman, M. A., Bernat, D. H., Sellers, R. M., & Notaro, P. C. (2002). Racial identity, maternal support, and psychological distress among African-American adolescents. Child Development, 73, 1322–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cass, V. C. (1984). Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical model. Journal of Sex Research, 20, 143–167.Google Scholar
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States, by race/ethnicity, 1998–2002. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report, 10, 1–38.Google Scholar
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2005. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 17, 1–54.Google Scholar
  19. Clarke, C. (1983). The failure to transform: Homophobia in the Black community. In B. Smith (Ed.), Homegirls: A Black feminist anthology (pp. 197–208). New York: Kitchen Table.Google Scholar
  20. Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (1994). Depressive distress among homosexually active African American men and women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 524–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Coleman, E. (1982). Developmental stages of the coming out process. Journal of Homosexuality, 7(2/3), 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Connell, R. W. (1987). Gender and power. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  23. Connell, R. W., & Dowsett, G. W. (1993). The unclean motion of the generative parts: Frameworks in Western thought on sexuality. In R. W. Connell & G. W. Dowsett (Eds.), Rethinking sex: Social theory and sexuality research (pp. 49–75). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Côté, J. E. (1996a). Identity: A multidimensional analysis. In G. Adams & R. Montemayor (Eds.), Adolescent identity formation (pp. 130–180). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Côté, J. E. (1996b). Sociological perspectives on identity formation: The culture-identity link and identity capital. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 417–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Courtenay, W. H. (2000). Constructions of masculinity and their influence on men’s well-being: A theory of gender and health. Social Science & Medicine, 50, 1385–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crawford, I., Allison, K. W., Zamboni, B. D., & Soto, T. (2002). The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 179–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cross, W. E., & Fhagen-Smith, P. (1996). Nigrescence and ego identity development: Accounting for differential Black identity patterns. In P. Perderson, J. Dragus, & J. Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (pp. 108–123). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Dalton, H. L. (1989). AIDS in blackface. Daedalus, 118, 205–227.Google Scholar
  30. D’Augelli, A. R. (1994). Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives of people in context (pp. 27–45). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  31. DeLamater, J. D., & Hyde, J. S. (1998). Essentialism vs. social constructionism in the study of human sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 35, 10–18.Google Scholar
  32. DeMarco, J. (1983). Gay racism. In M. J. Smith (Ed.), Black men/white men (pp. 109–119). San Francisco: Gay Sunshine.Google Scholar
  33. Diamond, L. M. (2005). Toward a greater specificity in modeling the ecological context of desire. Human Development, 48, 291–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Doll, L. S., & Beeker, C. (1996). Male bisexual behavior and HIV risk in the United States: Synthesis of research with implications for behavioral interventions. AIDS Education & Prevention, 8, 205–225.Google Scholar
  35. Doll, L. S., Peterson, J., Magana, J. R., & Carrier, J. M. (1991). Male bisexuality and AIDS in the United States. In R. Tielman, M. Carballo, & A. Hendricks (Eds.), Bisexuality and HIV/AIDS: A global perspective (pp. 27–39). Buffalo, NY: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  36. Doll, L. S., Petersen, L. R., White, C. R., Johnson, E. S., Ward, J. W., & the Blood Donor Study Group (1992). Homosexually and nonhomosexually identified men who have sex with men: A behavioral comparison. Journal of Sex Research, 29, 1–14.Google Scholar
  37. Dubé, E. M., & Savin-Williams, R. C. (1999). Sexual identity development among ethnic sexual-minority male youths. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1389–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elizur, Y., & Mintzer, A. (2001). A framework for the formation of gay male identity: Processes associated with adult attachment style and support from family and friends. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30, 143–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ernst, F. A., Francis, R. A., Nevels, H., & Lemeh, C. A. (1991). Condemnation of homosexuality in the Black community: A gender-specific phenomenon? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20, 579–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Floyd, F. J., & Stein, T. S. (2002). Sexual orientation identity formation among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: Multiple patterns of milestone experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). Developmental systems theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  42. Ford, C. R., Whetten, K. D., Hall, S. A., Kaufman, J. S., & Thrasher, A. D. (2007). Black sexuality, social construction, and research targeting “The Down Low” (“The DL”). Annals of Epidemiology, 17, 209–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Foster, M. W., & Sharp, R. R. (2002). Race, ethnicity, and genomics: Social classifications as proxies of biological heterogeneity. Genome Research, 12, 844–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality: An introduction. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  45. Frable, D. E. S. (1997). Gender, racial, ethnic, sexual, and class identities. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 139–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Franklin, C. W. (1985). The Black male urban barbershop as a sex-role socialization setting. Sex Roles, 12, 965–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Franklin, C. W. (1994). Men’s studies, the men’s movement, and the study of Black masculinities: Further demystification of masculinities in America. In R. G. Majors & J. U. Gordon (Eds.), The American Black male (pp. 4–19). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  48. Fullilove, R., & Fullilove, M. (1991). Black men, black sexuality and AIDS. In B. P. Bowser (Ed.), Black male adolescents: Parenting and education in community context (pp. 214–227). New York: University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Gagnon, J. H., & Simon, W. (1973). Sexual conduct: The social sources of human sexuality. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  50. Gecas, V., & Burke, P. K. (1995). Self and identity. In K. S. Cook, G. A. Fine, & J. S. House (Eds.), Sociological perspectives on social psychology (pp. 41–67). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  51. Gibbs, J. (1984). Black adolescents and youth: An endangered species. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 8–20.Google Scholar
  52. Harris, S. M. (1992). Black male masculinity and same sex friendships. Western Journal of Black Studies, 16, 744–781.Google Scholar
  53. Harrison, A. O, Wilson, M. N., Pine, C. J., Chan, S. Q., & Buriel, R. (1990). Family ecologies of ethnic minority children. Child Development, 61, 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hawkeswood, W. G. (1996). One of the children: Gay Black men in Harlem. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  55. Hemphill, R. (1991). If Freud had been a neurotic colored woman: Reading Dr. Frances Cress Welsing. Outlook, 13, 50–55.Google Scholar
  56. Herdt, G., & Boxer, A. (1995a). Bisexuality: Toward a comparative theory of identities and culture. In R. G. Parker & J. H. Gagnon (Eds.), Conceiving sexuality: Approaches to sex research in a postmodern world (pp. 63–89). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Herdt, G., & Boxer, A. (1995b). Introduction: Culture, history, and life course of gay men. In G. Herdt (Ed.), Gay culture in America (pp. 1–28). Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  58. Herdt, G., & McClintock, M. (2000). The magical age of 10. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 587–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hunter, A. G., & Davis, J. E. (1992). Constructing gender: An exploration of Afro-American men’s conceptualization of manhood. Gender and Society, 6, 474–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hunter, A. G., & Davis, J. E. (1994). Hidden voices of Black men: The meaning, structure, and complexity of manhood. Journal of Black Studies, 25, 20–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hutchinson, E. (1994). The assassination of the Black male image. Los Angeles: Middle Passage.Google Scholar
  62. Jackson, J. S., McCullough, W. R., & Gurin, G. (1997). Family, socialization environment, and identity development in Black Americans. In H. P. McAdoo (Ed.), Black families (pp. 242–256). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  63. Jackson, J. S., McCullough, W. R., Gurin, G., & Broman, C. L. (1991). Race identity. In J. S. Jackson (Ed.), Life in Black America (pp. 238–253). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  64. Icard, L. (1986). Black gay men and conflicting social identities: Sexual orientation versus racial identity. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 4, 83–93.Google Scholar
  65. Icard, L. (1996). Assessing the psychosocial well-being of African-American gays: A multidimensional perspective. In J. F. Longres (Ed.), Men of color: A context for service to homosexually active men (pp. 25–49). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kelly, J. G., Azelton, L. S., Burzette, R. G., & Mock, L. O. (1994). An ecological thesis: Creating social settings for diversity. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives on people in context (pp. 424–451). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  67. Kennamer, J. D., Honnold, J., Bradford, J., & Hendricks, M. (2000). Differences in disclosure of sexuality among African American and white gay/bisexual men: Implication for HIV/AIDS prevention. AIDS Education and Prevention, 12, 519–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kimmel, M. (1996). Manhood in America: A cultural history. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  69. Klein, F. (1990). The need to view sexual orientation as a multivariate dynamic process: A theoretical perspective. In D. P. McWhirther, S. A. Sanders, & J. M. Reinisch (Eds.), Homosexuality/Heterosexuality: Concepts of sexual orientation (pp. 277–282). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Lemelle, A. J., & Battle, J. (2004). Black masculinity matters in attitudes toward gay males. Journal of Homosexuality, 47, 39–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lerner, R. M. (1983). A “goodness of fit” model of person-context interaction. In D. Magnusson & V. L. Allen (Eds.), Human development: An interactional perspective (pp. 279–294). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  72. Lichtenstein, B. (2000). Secret encounters: Black men, bisexuality, and AIDS in Alabama. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 14, 374–393. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Magnusson, D. (1988). Individual development from an interactional perspective: A longitudinal study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  74. Marable, M. (2000). The Black male: Search beyond stereotypes. In M. S. Kimmel & M. A. Messner (Eds.), Men’s lives (pp. 17–23). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  75. Matute-Bianchi, M. E. (1986). Ethnic identity and patterns of school successes and failures among Mexican-descent and Japanese-American students in a California high school: An ethnographic analysis. American Journal of Education, 95, 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mays, V. C., Cochran, S. D., Bellinger, G., Smith, R. G., Henley, N., Daniels, M., et al. (1992). The language of Black gay men’s sexual behavior: Implications for AIDS risk reduction. Journal of Sex Research, 29, 425–434.Google Scholar
  77. McClintock, M., & Herdt, G. (1996). Rethinking puberty: The development of sexual attraction. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 5, 178–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McKirnan, D. J., Stokes, J. P., Doll, L., & Burzette, R. G. (1995). Bisexually active men: Social characteristics and sexual behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 32, 65–76.Google Scholar
  79. McLoyd, V. C., Cauce, A. M., Takeuchi, D., & Wilson, L. (2000) Marital processes and parental socialization in families of color: A decade review of research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1070–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Meyer, I. H., & Ouellette, S. C. (in press). Unity and purpose at the intersections of racial/ethnic and sexual identities. In P. L. Hammack & B. J. Cohler (Eds.), The story of sexual identity: Narrative, social change, and the development of sexual orientation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, M., Serner, M., & Wagner, M. (2005). Sexual diversity among black men who have sex with men in an inner-city community. Journal of Urban Health, 82, i26–i34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Millett, G. A., Malebranche, D., Mason, B., & Spikes, P. (2005). Focusing “down low”: Bisexual Black men, HIV risk and heterosexual transmission. Journal of the American Medical Association, 97, 52S–59S.Google Scholar
  83. Millett, G. A., & Peterson, J. L. (2007). The known hidden epidemic: HIV/AIDS among Black men who have sex with men in the United States. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, S31–S33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Minton, H. L., & McDonald, G. J. (1984). Homosexual identity formation as a developmental process. Journal of Homosexuality, 9, 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Monteiro, K. P., & Fuqua, V. (1994). African American gay youth: One form of manhood. The High School Journal, 77, 20–36.Google Scholar
  86. Montgomery, J. P., Mokotoff, E. S., Gentry, A. C., & Blair, J. M. (2003). The extent of bisexual behaviour in HIV-infected men and implication for transmission to their female sex partners. AIDS Care, 15, 829–837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Morales, E. S. (1990). Ethnic minority families and minority gays and lesbians. Marriage & Family Review, 14, 217–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Morton, L. G. (2007). MSM, the streets, and lockdown: Sexual threat and social dominance in America. Journal of African American Studies, 11, 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Myrick, R. (1999). In the life: Culture-specific HIV communication programs designed for African American men who have sex with men. Journal of Sex Research, 36, 159–170.Google Scholar
  90. Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems, 41, 152–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Payne, Y. A. (2006). “A gangster and a gentleman:” How street-life oriented, U.S.-born African men negotiate issues of survival in relation to their masculinity. Men & Masculinities, 8, 288–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Peterson, J. L. (1992). Black men and their same-sex desires and behaviors. In G. Herdt (Ed.), Gay culture in American: Essays from the field (pp. 147–164). Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  93. Peterson, J. L. (1995). AIDS-related risks and same-sex behaviors among African American men. In B. Greene & G. M. Herek (Eds.), AIDS, identity, and community: The HIV epidemic and lesbians and gay men (pp. 55–84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  94. Peterson, J. L., Coates, T. J., Catania, J. A., Middleton, L., Hilliard , B., & Hearst, N. (1992). High-risk sexual behavior and condom use among gay and bisexual African American men. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1490–1494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Peterson, J. L., Coates , T. J., Catania, J. A., Hilliard, B., Middleton, L., & Hearst , N. (1995). Help-seeking for AIDS high risk behavior among gay and bisexual African-American men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 7, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Peterson, J. L., Folkman, S., & Bakeman, R. (1996). Stress, coping, HIV status, psychosocial resources, and depressive mood in African-American gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 461–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 34–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Phinney, J. S. (1993). A three-stage model of ethnic identity development in adolescence. In M. E. Bernal & G. P. Knight (Eds.), Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities (pp. 61–79). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  99. Phinney, J. S., Romero, I., Nava, M., & Huang, D. (2001). The role of language, parents, and peers in ethnic identity among adolescents in immigrant families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Phinney, J. S., & Rosenthal, D.A. (1992). Ethnic identity in adolescence: Process, context, outcome. In G. R. Adams, T. P. Gullota, & R. Montemayor (Eds.), Adolescent identity formation (pp. 145–172). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  101. Plummer, D. C. (2000). The quest for modern manhood: Masculine stereotypes, peer culture and the social significance of homophobia. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. Signs, 5, 631–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ross, M. W., Essien, E. J., Williams, M. L., & Fernandez-Esquer, M. E. (2003). Concordance between sexual behavior and sexual identity in street outreach samples of four racial/ethnic groups. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30, 110–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rust, P. C. R. (2000). Bisexuality in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Savin-Williams, R. C. (1996). Ethnic-minority and sexual-minority youths. In R. C. Savin-Williams & K. M. Cohen (Eds.), The lives of lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: Children to adults (pp. 152–165). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  106. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Diamond, L. M. (2000). Sexual identity trajectories among sexual-minority youths: Gender comparisons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 607–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schulte, L. J., & Battle, J. (2004). The relative importance of ethnicity and religion in predicting attitudes toward gays and lesbians. Journal of Homosexuality, 47, 127–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sellers, R. M., Smith, M. A., Shelton, J. N., Rowley, S. J., & Chavous, T. M. (1998). Multidimensional model of racial identity: A reconceptualization of African American racial identity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 18–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Shively, M. G., & DeCecco, J. P. (1977). Components of sexual identity. Journal of Homosexuality, 3, 41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, A. (1997). Cultural diversity and the coming-out process: Implications for clinical practice. In B. Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 279–300). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  111. Spencer, M. B., & Markstrom-Adams, C. (1990). Identity processes among racial and ethnic minority children in America. Child Development, 61, 290–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stack, C. B. (1974). All our kin: Strategies for survival in a Black community. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  113. Staples, R. (1978). Masculinity and race: The dual dilemma of Black men. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Staples, R. (1982). Black masculinity: The Black male’s role in American society. San Francisco: Black Scholar.Google Scholar
  115. Stevenson, H. C. (1995). Relationship of adolescent perceptions of racial socialization to racial identity. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stokes, J. P., Miller, R. L., & Mundhenk, R. (1998). Toward an understanding of behaviourally bisexual men: The influence of context and culture. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 7(2), 101–113.Google Scholar
  117. Stokes, J. P., & Peterson, J. L. (1998). Homophobia, self-esteem, and risk for HIV among African-American men who have sex with men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 10, 278–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Stokes, J. P., Vanable, P. A., & McKirnan, D. J. (1996). Ethnic differences in sexual behavior, condom use, and psychosocial variables among Black and White men who have sex with men. Journal of Sex Research, 33, 373–381.Google Scholar
  119. Stokes, J. P., Vanable, P. A., & McKirnan, D. J. (1997). Comparing gay and bisexual men on sexual behavior, condom use, and psychosocial variables related to HIV/AIDS. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 377–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stryker, S. (2000). Identity competition: Key to differential social movement involvement. In S. Stryker, T. Owens, & R. White (Eds.), Identity, self, and social movements (pp. 21–40). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  121. Stryker, S., & Macke, A. (1978). Status inconsistency and role conflict. Annual Review of Sociology, 4, 57–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Swanson, D. P., Spencer, M. B., Dell’Angelo, T., Harpalani, V., & Spencer, T. R. (2002). Identity processes and the positive youth development of African Americans: An explanatory framework. In R. M. Lerner, C. S. Taylor, & A. von Eye (Eds.), New directions for youth development (pp. 73–99). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  123. Tajfel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 2–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.Google Scholar
  125. Taylor, R. J., Mattis, J., & Chatters, L. M. (1999). Subjective religiosity among African Americans: A synthesis of findings from five national samples. Journal of Black Psychology, 25, 524–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Thoits, P. A. (1983). Multiple identities and psychological well-being. American Sociological Review, 49, 174–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Thomas, S., & Hodges, B. (1991). Assessing AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors among Black and Hispanic homosexual and bisexual men. Journal of Sex Education Therapy, 17, 116–124.Google Scholar
  128. Tolman, D. L., Striepe, M. I., & Harmon, T. (2003). Gender matters: Constructing a model of adolescent sexual health. Journal of Sex Research, 40, 4–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Trickett, E. J., Watts, R. J., & Birman, D. (1994). Toward an overarching framework for diversity. In E. J. Trickett, R. J. Watts, & D. Birman (Eds.), Human diversity: Perspectives of people in context (pp. 27–45). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  130. Troiden, R. R. (1989). The formation of homosexual identities. Journal of Homosexuality 17(1–2), 43–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Trujillo, C. M. (1997). Sexual identity and the discontents of difference. In B. Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 216–239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  132. Tucker, M. B., & Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1995). Trends in African American family formation: A theoretical, statistical overview. In M. B. Tucker & C. Mitchell-Kernan (Eds.), The decline in marriage among African Americans: Causes, consequences and policy implications (pp. 3–26). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  133. Weinberg, M. S., Williams, C. J., & Pryor, D. W. (1994). Dual attraction: Understanding bisexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  134. Weinberg, M. S., Williams, C. J., & Pryor, D. W. (2001). Bisexuals at midlife: Commitment, salience, and identity. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 30, 180–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wilson, M. N., Cooke, D. Y., & Arrington, E. G. (1997). African-American adolescents and academic achievement: Family and peer influences. In R. D. Taylor & M. C. Wang (Eds.), Social and emotional adjustment and family relations in ethnic minority families (pp. 145–155). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  136. Wilson, P. A., & Yoshikawa, H. (2004). Experiences of and responses to social discrimination among Asian and Pacific Islander gay men: Their relationship to HIV risk. AIDS Education and Prevention, 16, 68–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wilson, P. A., Yoshikawa, H., & Peterson, J. L. (2002). The impact of social networks and social/political group participation on HIV-risk behaviors of African-American men who have sex with men. Poster presentation at the XIV World AIDS Conference, Barcelona, Spain.Google Scholar
  138. Woodyard, J., Peterson, J. L., & Stokes, J. (2000). Let us go into the house of the Lord: Participation in African American churches by African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Journal of Pastoral Care, 54, 451–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wright, J. W. (1993). African-American male sexual behavior and the risk for HIV infection. Human Organization, 52, 421–431.Google Scholar
  140. Young, R. M., & Meyer, I. H. (2005). The trouble with “MSM” and “WSW”: Erasure of the sexual-minority person in public health discourse. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 1144–1149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociomedical Sciences, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations