Archives of Sexual Behavior

, 37:838 | Cite as

Assessment of Stigma Towards Homosexuality in China: A Study of Men Who Have Sex with Men

  • Torsten B. NeilandsEmail author
  • Wayne T. Steward
  • Kyung-Hee Choi
Original Paper


Previous research has documented the deleterious impact of homosexuality stigma on HIV sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the vulnerability of this group in China for HIV acquisition. Factor analysis of 10 survey items from 477 MSM from Shanghai yielded two factors: Perceived stigma assessed participants’ impressions of the degree of societal stigmatization of homosexuals whereas enacted stigma measured direct personal experiences of stigmatizing behaviors. Enacted stigma exhibited satisfactory internal reliability and was associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Further research is needed to refine perceived and other stigma constructs for Chinese MSM.


China Homosexuality (men who have sex with men) Stigma Scale development 



This study was funded by NIH/Fogarty D43 TW00003-13S1 and the Japanese Foundation for AIDS Prevention. Dr. Neilands was supported by a Center grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (P30 MH62246-05). During the course of article preparation, the authors received helpful comments and suggestions for improvement from Nelson Varas Diaz, Tri Do, David Huebner, and Starley Shade. We are also grateful to the Editor and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments that lead to an improved version of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torsten B. Neilands
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wayne T. Steward
    • 1
  • Kyung-Hee Choi
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for AIDS Prevention StudiesUniversity of California, San Francisco (UCSF)San FranciscoUSA

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