Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 439–446 | Cite as

Early History of the Concept of Autogynephilia

  • Ray Blanchard
Article

Abstract

Since the beginning of the last century, clinical observers have described the propensity of certain males to be erotically aroused by the thought or image of themselves as women. Because there was no specific term to denote this phenomenon, clinicians’ references to it were generally oblique or periphrastic. The closest available word was transvestism. The definition of transvestism accepted by the end of the twentieth century, however, did not just fail to capture the wide range of erotically arousing cross-gender behaviors and fantasies in which women’s garments per seplay a small role or none at all; it actually directed attention away from them. The absence of an adequate terminology became acute in the writer’s research on the taxonomy of gender identity disorders in biological males. This had suggested that heterosexual, asexual, and bisexual transsexuals are more similar to each other—and to transvestites—than any of them is to the homosexual type, and that the common feature in transvestites and the three types of non-homosexual transsexuals is a history of erotic arousal in association with the thought or image of themselves as women. At the same time, the writer was becoming aware of male patients who are sexually aroused only by the idea of having a woman’s body and not at all by the idea of wearing women’s clothes. To fill this terminological and conceptual gap, the writer introduced the term autogynephilia(love of oneself as a woman).

Key Words

autogynephilia DSM gender dysphoria gender identity disorder transsexualism transvestism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, J. M. (2003). The man who would be queen: The science of gender-bending and transsexualism. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press.Google Scholar
  3. Blanchard, R. (1985). Typology of male-to-female transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 247–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanchard, R. (1988). Nonhomosexual gender dysphoria. Journal of Sex Research, 24, 188–193.Google Scholar
  5. Blanchard, R. (1989a). The classification and labeling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18, 315–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchard, R. (1989b). The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 616–623.Google Scholar
  7. Blanchard, R. (1990). Gender identity disorders in adult men. In R. Blanchard & B. W. Steiner (Eds.), Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults (pp. 47–76). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  8. Blanchard, R. (1991). Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 17, 235–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blanchard, R. (1992). Nonmonotonic relation of autogynephilia and heterosexual attraction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101, 271–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blanchard, R. (1993a). Partial versus complete autogynephilia and gender dysphoria. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 19, 301–307.Google Scholar
  11. Blanchard, R. (1993b). The she-male phenomenon and the concept of partial autogynephilia. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 19, 69–76.Google Scholar
  12. Blanchard, R. (1993c). Varieties of autogynephilia and their relationship to gender dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22, 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blanchard, R., & Clemmensen, L. H. (1988). A test of the DSM-III-R’s implicit assumption that fetishistic arousal and gender dysphoria are mutually exclusive. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 426–432.Google Scholar
  14. Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H., & Steiner, B. W. (1987). Heterosexual and homosexual gender dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 139–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Buckner, H. T. (1970). The transvestic career path. Psychiatry, 33, 381–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buhrich, N. (1978). Motivation for cross-dressing in heterosexual transvestism. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 57, 145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ekins, R., & King, D. (2001). Transgendering, migrating and love of oneself as a woman: A contribution to a sociology of autogynephilia. International Journal of Transgenderism, 5. Retrieved August 1, 2004 from http://www.symposion.com/ijt/ijtvo05no03_01.htm
  18. Ellis, H. (1928). Studies in the psychology of sex (Vol. 7). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis, H. (1935). Psychology of sex: A manual for students. New York: Emerson Books.Google Scholar
  20. Fenichel, O. (1930). The psychology of transvestism. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 11, 211–227.Google Scholar
  21. Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1993). Erotic target location errors in male gender dysphorics, paedophiles, and fetishists. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 558–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Freund, K., Steiner, B. W., & Chan, S. (1982). Two types of cross-gender identity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 49–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Henry, G. W. (1948). Sex variants: A study of homosexual patterns. New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  24. Hirschfeld, M. (1910). Die Transvestiten [Transvestites] (1st ed.). Berlin: Alfred Pulvermacher.Google Scholar
  25. Hirschfeld, M. (1918). Sexualpathologie [Sexual pathology] (Vol. 2). Bonn: Marcus & Weber.Google Scholar
  26. Hirschfeld, M. (1925). Die Transvestiten [Transvestites] (2nd ed.). Leipzig: Ferdinand Spohr.Google Scholar
  27. Hirschfeld, M. (1948). Sexual anomalies. New York: Emerson Books.Google Scholar
  28. Hirschfeld, M. (1991). Transvestites (M. A. Lombardi-Nash, Trans.). Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. (Original work published 1910)Google Scholar
  29. Karpman, B. (1947). Dream life in a case of transvestism with particular attention to the problem of latent homosexuality. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 106, 292–337.Google Scholar
  30. Lawrence, A. A. (1999a). 28 narratives about autogynephilia. Retrieved July 23, 2004, from http://www.annelawrence.com/agnarratives.html
  31. Lawrence, A. A. (1999b). 31 new narratives about autogynephilia. Retrieved July 23, 2004, from http://www.annelawrence.com/31narratives.html
  32. Lawrence, A. A. (1999c). Autogynephilia: Frequently-asked questions. Retrieved July 28, 2004, from http://www.annelawrence.com/agfaqs.html#5
  33. Lawrence, A. A. (2004). Autogynephilia: A paraphilic model of gender identity disorder. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 8, 69–87.Google Scholar
  34. Zucker, K. J., & Blanchard, R. (1997). Transvestic fetishism: Psychopathology and theory. In D. R. Laws & W. O’Donohue (Eds.), Sexual deviance: Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 253–279). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Law and Mental Health ProgramCentre for Addiction and Mental Health—College Street SiteTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations