Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 411–421 | Cite as

Gender Dysphoria and Gender Change in Androgen Insensitivity or Micropenis

  • Tom MazurEmail author


This review article answers three questions relevant to the medical management and care of individuals born with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), or a micropenis: (1) Do any of these individuals reassign themselves from their initial gender assignment? (2) Do more reassign than the ones who do not? (3) Is there evidence of gender dysphoria in those who do not self-initiate reassignment? Reviewed were all articles on CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis cited in K. J. Zucker (1999) plus articles published through 2004. There were no documented cases of gender change in individuals with CAIS (N= 156 females) or micropenis (N= 89: 79 males, 10 females). Nine (9.1%) out of 99 individuals with PAIS changed gender. Thus, self-initiated gender reassignment was rare. Gender dysphoria also appears to be a rare occurrence. The best predictor of adult gender identity in CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis is initial gender assignment.

Key Words

complete androgen insensitivity syndrome partial androgen insensitivity syndrome androgen resistance syndromes micropenis gender identity gender dysphoria 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Buffalo and The Women and Children’s Hospital of BuffaloBuffalo
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric EndocrinologyThe Women and Children’s Hospital of BuffaloBuffalo

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