Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 399–410

Gender Change in 46,XY Persons with 5α-Reductase-2 Deficiency and 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase-3 Deficiency


DOI: 10.1007/s10508-005-4339-4

Cite this article as:
Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. Arch Sex Behav (2005) 34: 399. doi:10.1007/s10508-005-4339-4


Individuals with 5α-reductase-2 deficiency (5α-RD-2) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency (17β-HSD-3) are often raised as girls. Over the past number of years, this policy has been challenged because many individuals with these conditions develop a male gender identity and make a gender role change after puberty. The findings also raised doubts regarding the hypothesis that children are psychosexually neutral at birth and emphasized the potential role of prenatal brain exposure to androgens in gender development. If prenatal exposure to androgens is a major contributor to gender identity development, one would expect that all, or nearly all, affected individuals, even when raised as girls, would develop a male gender identity and make a gender role switch later in life. However, an estimation of the prevalence of gender role changes, based on the current literature, shows that gender role changes occur frequently, but not invariably. Gender role changes were reported in 56–63% of cases with 5α-RD-2 and 39–64% of cases with 17β-HSD-3 who were raised as girls. The changes were usually made in adolescence and early adulthood. In these two syndromes, the degree of external genital masculinization at birth does not seem to be related to gender role changes in a systematic way.

Key Words

5α-reductase deficiency 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency gender dysphoria gender identity 

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical PsychologyVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamNetherlands

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