Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 285–297

Erectile and Ejaculatory Problems in Gay and Heterosexual Men

  • John Bancroft
  • Lori Carnes
  • Erick Janssen
  • David Goodrich
  • J. Scott Long
Article

Abstract

The prevalence of erectile difficulties (ED) and problems with rapid ejaculation (RE) were studied in a convenience sample of gay men (n = 1379) and an age-matched sample of heterosexual men (n = 1558). ED was reported more frequently by gay men and RE more frequently by heterosexual men. The heterosexual men were more likely to be in exclusive relationships and those in a current relationship (exclusive or non-exclusive) were more likely to report ED than those not in a relationship. Heterosexual men in an exclusive relationship were more likely to report RE than the rest. These associations were not found in the gay sample. The following personality traits were assessed as possible predictors of ED and RE: sexual inhibition proneness (SIS1 and SIS2), sexual excitation proneness, impact of mood on sexuality, and trait measures of depression and anxiety. Age and SIS1 (inhibition due to threat of performance failure) were strong predictors of ED in both gay and heterosexual men. Gay men scored higher on SIS1 whether or not they reported ED, consistent with greater concerns about performance failure in gay men. Anxiety was predictive of RE, but only in the heterosexual men. If replicated in other samples, these differences may reflect a greater importance of erectile function in the sexual lives of gay men and greater importance of ejaculatory control in heterosexual relationships.

Key Words

erectile dysfunction premature ejaculation homosexuality heterosexuality men depression anxiety 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Angst, J. (1998). Sexual problems in healthy and depressed persons. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13(Suppl. 6), S1–S4.Google Scholar
  2. Araujo, A. B., Durante, R., Feldman, H. A., Goldstein, I., & McKinlay, J. B. (1998). The relationship between depressive symptoms and male erectile dysfunction: Cross-sectional results from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 458–465.Google Scholar
  3. Bancroft, J. (1999). Central inhibition of sexual response in the male: A theoretical perspective. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 763–784.Google Scholar
  4. Bancroft, J., Carnes, L., Janssen, E., & Long, J. S. (2005). Unprotected anal intercourse in HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men: The relevance of sexual arousability, mood, sensation seeking, and erectile problems. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 299–305.Google Scholar
  5. Bancroft, J., Herbenick, D., Barnes, T., Hallam-Jones, R., Wylie, K., Janssen, E., et al. (in press). The relevance of the Dual Control Model to male sexual dysfunction: The Kinsey Institute/BASRT Collaborative Project. Sexual & Relationship Therapy.Google Scholar
  6. Bancroft, J., & Janssen, E. (2000). The dual control model of male sexual response: A theoretical approach to centrally mediated erectile dysfunction. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 571–579.Google Scholar
  7. Bancroft, J., & Janssen, E. (2001) Psychogenic erectile dysfunction in the era of pharmacotherapy: A theoretical approach. In J. Mulcahy (Ed.), Male sexual function: A guide to clinical management (pp. 79–89). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bancroft, J., Janssen, E., Carnes, L., Goodrich, D., Strong, D., & Long, J. S. (2004). Sexual activity and risk taking in young heterosexual men: The relevance of sexual arousability, mood, and sensation seeking. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 181–192.Google Scholar
  9. Bancroft, J., Janssen, E., Strong, D., Carnes, L., & Long, J. S. (2003). Sexual risk taking in gay men: The relevance of sexual arousability, mood, and sensation seeking. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 555–572.Google Scholar
  10. Bancroft, J., Janssen, E., Strong, D., & Vukadinovic, Z. (2003). The relation between mood and sexuality in gay men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 231–242.Google Scholar
  11. Bancroft, J., Janssen, E., Strong, D., Vukadinovic, Z., & Long, J. S. (2003). The relation between mood and sexuality in heterosexual men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 217–230.Google Scholar
  12. Bancroft, J., Loftus, J., & Long, J. S. (2003). Distress about sex: A national survey of women in heterosexual relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 193–208.Google Scholar
  13. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. London: Staples Press.Google Scholar
  14. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100.Google Scholar
  15. Brant, R. (1990). Assessing proportionality in the proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Biometrics, 46, 1171–1178.Google Scholar
  16. Byers, E. S., & Grenier, G. (2003). Premature or rapid ejaculation: Heterosexual couples’ perceptions of men’s ejaculatory behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 261–270.Google Scholar
  17. Byrne, D., & Schulte, L. (1990). Personality dispositions as mediators of sexual responses. Annual Review of Sex Research, 1, 93–117.Google Scholar
  18. Cooper, A. J. (1968). Hostility and male potency disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 6, 621–626.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, A. J., Cernovsky, Z. Z., & Colussi, K. (1993). Some clinical and psychometric characteristics of primary and secondary premature ejaculators. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 19, 276–288.Google Scholar
  20. Costa, P. T., Fagan, P. J., Piedmont, R. L., Ponticas, Y., & Wise, T. N. (1992). The five-factor model of personality and sexual functioning in outpatient men and women. Psychiatric Medicine, 2, 199–215.Google Scholar
  21. Eysenck, H. J. (1976). Sex and personality. London: Open Books.Google Scholar
  22. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Beautrais, A. L. (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people? Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 876–880.Google Scholar
  23. Figueira, I., Possidente, E., Marques, C., & Hayes, K. (2001). Sexual dysfunction: A neglected complication of panic disorder and social phobia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30, 369–377.Google Scholar
  24. Fisher, W. A., Byrne, D., White, L. A., & Kelley, K. (1988). Erotophobia-erotophilia as a dimension of personality. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 123–151.Google Scholar
  25. Gilman, S. E., Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 933–939.Google Scholar
  26. Herrell, R., Goldberg, J., True, W. R., Ramakrishnan, V., Lyons, M., Eisen, S., et al. (1999). Sexual orientation and suicidality: A co-twin control study in adult men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 867–874.Google Scholar
  27. Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied logistic regression (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  28. Janssen, E., Vorst, H., Finn, P., & Bancroft, J. (2002a). The Sexual Inhibition (SIS) and Sexual Excitation (SES) Scales: I. Measuring sexual inhibition and excitation proneness in men. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 114–126.Google Scholar
  29. Janssen, E., Vorst, H., Finn, P., & Bancroft, J. (2002b). The Sexual Inhibition (SIS) and Sexual Excitation (SES) Scales: II. Predicting psychophysiological response patterns. The Journal of Sex Research, 39, 127–132.Google Scholar
  30. Laumann, E. O., Paik, A., & Rosen, R. C. (1999). Sexual dysfunction in the United States: Prevalence and predictors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 537–544.Google Scholar
  31. Long, J. S. (1997). Regression models for categorical and limited dependent variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.Google Scholar
  32. Mills, T. C., Paul, J., Stall, R., Pollack, L., Canchola, J., Changh, Y. J., et al. (2004). Distress and depression in men who have sex with men: The Urban Men’s Health Study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 278–285.Google Scholar
  33. Remafedi, G., French, S., Story, M., Resnick, M. D., & Blum, R. (1998). The relationship between suicide risk and sexual orientation: Results of a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 57–60.Google Scholar
  34. Rowland, D. L., de Gouvea Brazao, C., Strassberg, D. A., & Slob, A. K. (2000). Ejaculatory latency and control in men with premature ejaculation: A detailed analysis across sexual activities using multiple sources of information. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 48, 69–77.Google Scholar
  35. Rowland, D. L., Tai, W., & Brummett, K. (in press). In E. Janssen (Ed.), The psychophysiology of sex. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sandfort, T. G. M., de Graff, R., Bijl, R. V., & Schnabel, P. (2001). Same-sex sexual behavior and psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 85–91.Google Scholar
  37. Sandfort, T. G. M., & de Keizer, M. (2001). Sexual problems in gay men: An overview of empirical research. Annual Review of Sex Research, 12, 93–120.Google Scholar
  38. Shires, A., & Miller, D. (1998). A preliminary study comparing psychological factors associated with erectile dysfunction in heterosexual and homosexual men. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 13, 37–49.Google Scholar
  39. Simons, J. S., & Carey, M. P. (2001). Prevalence of sexual dysfunctions: Results from a decade of research. Archives Sexual Behavior, 30, 177–219.Google Scholar
  40. Simpson, J. A., & Gangestad, S. W. (1991). Individual differences in sociosexuality: Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 870–883.Google Scholar
  41. Slater, E. (1945). Neurosis and sexuality. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 8, 12–14.Google Scholar
  42. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). STAI manual for the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  43. Strassberg, D. S., Mahoney, J. M., Schaugaard, M., & Hale, V. (1990). The role of anxiety in premature ejaculation: A psychophysiological model. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 251–257.Google Scholar
  44. Ware, M. R., Emmanuel, N. P., Johnson, M. R., Brawman-Mintzer, O., Knapp, R., Crawford-Harrison, M., et al. (1996). Self-reported sexual dysfunctions in anxiety disorder patients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 32, 530.Google Scholar
  45. Zemore, R., Fischer, D. G., Garratt, L. S., & Miller, C. (1990). The depression proneness rating scale: Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Current Psychology: Research & Reviews, 9, 255–263.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Bancroft
    • 1
    • 3
  • Lori Carnes
    • 1
  • Erick Janssen
    • 1
  • David Goodrich
    • 1
  • J. Scott Long
    • 2
  1. 1.The Kinsey InstituteIndiana UniversityBloomington
  2. 2.Department of SociologyIndiana UniversityBloomington
  3. 3.The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and ReproductionIndiana UniversityBloomington

Personalised recommendations