Artificial Intelligence and Law

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 109–138 | Cite as

Simulating the emergence of norms in different scenarios

  • Ulf Lotzmann
  • Michael Möhring
  • Klaus G. TroitzschEmail author


This paper deals with EMIL-S, a software tool box which was designed during the EMIL project for the simulation of processes during which norms emerged in an agent society. This tool box implements the cognitive architecture of normative agents which was designed during the EMIL project which is also discussed in other papers in this issue. This implementation is described in necessary detail, and two examples of its application to several different scenarios are given, namely a scenario in which persons involved in micro finance are simulated and learn how to sanction free riders and how to learn from these sanctions, and a scenario in which simulated persons move through a simulated airport where they more often than not have to wait in queues and learn how to behave properly in queues.


Emergence Norms Agent-based model Agent communication 



Most of the work done for this paper was accomplished during the project “Emergence in the Loop—Simulating the Two-Way Dynamics of Norm Innovation” funded by the European Union in its Sixth Framework Programme under grant no. 033841. Section 4 goes back to Pablo Lucas’ work, the implementation in EMIL-S was done by our student Manuel Pauli, Sect. 5 goes back to Marco Campennì’s work, and the EMIL-S implementation was done by our students Steffi Henn, Peyman Jazayeri, Magnus Oberhausen, Mehmet-Hadi Tohum and Jannik Weyrich.


  1. Andrighetto G, Conte R (eds) (2012) Minding norms. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrighetto G, Campennì M, Conte R (2007) EMIL-M: Models of norms emergence, norms immergence and the 2-way dynamic. Technical Report 00507, CNR, LABSS-ISTC, RomaGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrighetto G, Campennì M, Conte R, Cecconi F (2008) Conformity in multiple contexts: imitation vs. norm recognition. In: World Congress on Social Simulation, Fairfax VA July 14–17, 2008. Fairfax VAGoogle Scholar
  4. Castelfranchi C (1998) Simulating with cognitive agents: the importance of cognitive emergence. In: Sichman JS, Conte R, Gilbert N (eds) Multi-agent systems and agent-based simulation. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  5. Conte R (2009) Rational, goal governed agents. In: Meyers RA (ed) Springer encyclopedia of complexity and system science. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Gulyás L (2008a) Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation with MASS. In: Summer School on Computational Social Sciences, National Chengchi University, August 2008. Taipei, TaiwanGoogle Scholar
  7. Gulyás L (2008b) Agent-based modeling and simulation with the multi-agent simulation suite. In: Tutorial at the 5th Conferece of the European Social Simulation Association (ESSA), Brescia, Italy, September 1, 2008. BresciaGoogle Scholar
  8. Gulyás L (2008c) Agent-based modeling and simulation with the multi-agent simulation suite. In: Tutorial at the 22nd European Simulation and Modeling Conference, Le Havre, France, October 29, 2008. Le HavreGoogle Scholar
  9. Gulyás L (2008d) Social simulation with agent-based modeling (with MASS). In: Complex Systems and Social Simulation, Summer University, Central European University, Budapest, July 2008. BudapestGoogle Scholar
  10. Iványi M, Bocsi R, Gulyás L, Kozma V, Legéndi R (2007a) The multi-agent simulation suite. In: AAAI Fall Symposium Series, Washington DC, USA, November 8–11, 2007. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Iványi M, Gulyás L, Bocsi R, Szemes G, Mészáros R (2007b) The model exploration module. In: Agent 2007: Complex Interaction and Social Emergence Conference, Evanston IL, November 15–18, 2007. EvanstonGoogle Scholar
  12. Kaldor N (1961/1968) Capital accumulation and economic growth. In Lutz FA, Hague DC (eds) The Theroy of Capital (Reprint Ausg., S). Macmillan, London, pp 177–222Google Scholar
  13. Lotzmann U (2008) TRASS—a multi-purpose agent-based simulation framework for complex traffic simulation applications. In: Bazzan A, Klügl F (eds) Multi-agent systems fro traffic and transportation. IGI GlobalGoogle Scholar
  14. Lotzmann U, Möhring M (2009a) Actor and observer processes of normative agents in social simulations. In: Al-Akaidi M (ed) 23rd Annual European Simulation and Modelling Conference, October 26–28 (S. 332–336). EUROSIS-ETI, LeicesterGoogle Scholar
  15. Lotzmann U, Möhring M (2009b) Simulating normative behaviour and norm formation processes. In: 23rd European conference on modelling and simulation, Madrid, July 2009. MadridGoogle Scholar
  16. Lotzmann U, Möhring M, Troitzsch KG (2008) Simulating Norm Formation in a Traffic Scenario. In: Fifth Conference of the European Social Simulation Association (ESSA), Brescia September 1–5, 2008. BresciaGoogle Scholar
  17. Luca P, Morales F, Garcia I (2008) Towards Analysing Social Norms in Microfinance Groups. In: 8th international conference of the international society for third sector research (ISTR). BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  18. Markisic S, Neumann M, Lotzmann U (2012) Simulation of ethnic conflicts in former Yugoslavia. In: Proceedings 26th European conference on modelling and simulation (ECMS 2012). Koblenz, pp 37–43Google Scholar
  19. Möhring M, Lotzmann U (2009) Simulating normative behaviour and norm formation processes. In: Otamendi J, Bargiela A, Montes JL, Pedrera LM (eds) 23rd European Conference on Modelling and Simulation, June 9–12, 2009. Madrid, S. 187–193Google Scholar
  20. North M, Collier N, Vos J (2006) Experiences creating three implementations of the repast agent modeling toolkit. ACM Trans Model Comput Simul 16(1):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. North M, Tatara E, Collier N, Ozik J (2007) Visual agent-based model development with repast simphony. In: Proceedings of the Agent 2007 conference on complex interaction and social emergence, Argonne national laboratory, November 2007. Argonne IL, USAGoogle Scholar
  22. Riesman D (1950) The lonely crowd: a study of the changing American character. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  23. Solow RM (1970) Growth theory: an exposition. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Troitzsch KG (2008) Simulating collaborative writing: software agents produce a wikipedia. In: Fifth conference of the European social simulation association (ESSA), Brescia September 1–5, 2008. BresciaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulf Lotzmann
    • 1
  • Michael Möhring
    • 1
  • Klaus G. Troitzsch
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Universität Koblenz-LandauKoblenzGermany

Personalised recommendations