Artificial Intelligence and Law

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 117–135 | Cite as

The structuring of legal knowledge in LOIS

  • Wim Peters
  • Maria-Teresa Sagri
  • Daniela TiscorniaEmail author


Legal information retrieval is in need of the provision of legal knowledge for the improvement of search strategies. For this purpose, the LOIS project is concerned with the construction of a multilingual WordNet for cross-lingual information retrieval in the legal domain. In this article, we set out how a hybrid approach, featuring lexically and legally grounded conceptual representations, can fit the cross-lingual information retrieval needs of both legal professionals and laymen


multilingual lexicon legal ontologies legal information retrieval 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bateman, J. A. (1992). The Theoretical Status of Ontologies in Natural Language Processing. In Preuss, S. and Schmitz, B. (eds.), Text Representation and Domain Modelling ideas from linguistics and AI, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  2. Bench-Capon, T. J. M. (2001). Task Neutral Ontologies, Common Sense Ontologies and Legal Information Systems, Second International Workshop on Legal Ontologies; in conjunction with JURIX 2001: The 14th Annual International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems. Amsterdam: The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  3. Boer, A., Hoekstra R., and Winkels R. (2001). The CLIME Ontology. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Legal Ontologies. Amsterdam: The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  4. Breuker, J. and Hoekstra, R. (2004). Epistemology and Ontology in Core Ontologies Exemplified by Two Core Ontologies for Law FOLaw and LRI-Cor. In Coront-Wes EkawGoogle Scholar
  5. Breuker, J., Valente, A., and Winkels, R. (2005). Use and Reuse of Legal Ontologies in Knowledge Engineering and Information Management. In Benjamins, V. R., Casanovas, P., Breuker, J., and Gangemi, A. (eds.), Law and the Semantic Web. Springer Verlag: BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. Delgado, J., Gallego, I., Llorente S., and García, R. (2003). IPROnto: An Ontology for Digital Rights Management. In JURIX 2003 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 106, IOS PressGoogle Scholar
  7. Despres S. and Szulman S. (2005). Merging of Legal Micro-Ontologies from European Directives. In Biasiotti et al. (eds.), Proceedings of Loait, Workshop on Legal Ontologies and Artificial Intelligence, Wolf Legal Publisher: The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  8. Dini, L., Liebwald, D., Mommers, L., Peters, W., Schweighofer, E., and Voermans, W. (2005). Cross-lingual Legal Information Retrieval Using a WordNet architecture. In Proceedings of ICAIL ‚05, 163–167. ACM: BolognaGoogle Scholar
  9. Doerr, M., Hunter, J., and Lagoze, C. (2003). Towards a Core Ontology for Information Integration. Journal of Digital Information, 4(1)Google Scholar
  10. Fellbaum C. (ed.) (1998) WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, Cambridge, Mass, MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Gangemi A., Prisco A., Sagri M. T., Steve G., Tiscornia D. (2003) Some Ontological Tools to Support Legal Regulatory Compliance, with a Case Study. In Jarrar M. et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Worm 2003 Workshop at OTM Conference, Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  12. Gangemi A., Sagri M.-T., Tiscornia D. (2004) An Ontology-based Approach for Representing “Bundle of rights”. In Jarrar M., Gangemi A. (eds.), Proceedings of the Worm 2004 Workshop at OTM Conference, Springer Verlag: BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. Gangemi, A., Sagri, M.-T., and Tiscornia, D. (2005). A Constructive Framework for Legal Ontologies. In Benjamins, V. R., Casanovas, P., Breuker, J., and Gangemi, A. (eds.), Law and the Semantic Web. Springer Verlag: BerlinGoogle Scholar
  14. Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., Masolo, C., Oltramari, A., and Schneider, L. (2002). Sweetening Ontologies with DOLCE. In Proceedings of EKAW 2002Google Scholar
  15. Hirst, G. (2004). Ontology and the Lexicon, In Staab, S. and Studer R. (eds.), Handbook on Ontologies. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalinowsky, G. (1965). Introduction à la logique juridique. ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. Kerremans, K. and Temmerman, R. (2004). Towards Multilingual, Termonto logical Support in Ontology Engineering. In Proceeding of Termino 2004, Workshop on Terminology Google Scholar
  18. van Kralingen R. W. (1995). Frame-based Conceptual Models of Statute Law. The Hague et al., Kluwer Law InternationalGoogle Scholar
  19. Macdonald, D. (1997). Legal Bilingualism, McGill Law Journal 1997, 42 McGill L.J. 119 pp.␣50–99Google Scholar
  20. Magnini, B. and Speranza, M. (2002). Merging Global and Specialized Linguistic Ontologies. In Proceedings of the Workshop Ontolex-2002 Ontologies and Lexical Knowledge Bases, 43–48. LREC-2002.Google Scholar
  21. Masolo, C., Borgo, S., Gangemi A., Guarino, N., and Oltramari, A. (2003). WonderWeb Project, Deliverable D18: Ontology LibraryGoogle Scholar
  22. Masolo, C., Vieu, L., Bottazzi, E., Catenacci, C., Ferrario, R., Gangemi, A., and Guarino, N. (2004). Social Roles and their Descriptions. In Dubois, D., Welty, D., and Williams, M. (eds.), Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Principle of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR)Google Scholar
  23. Matthijssen, L. (1999). Interfacing between Lawyers and Computers: An Architecture for Knowledge-based Interfaces to Legal Databases. The Hague et al., Kluwer Law InternationalGoogle Scholar
  24. Palmer, M., Grishman, R., Calzolari, N., and Zampolli, A. (2000). Standardizing Multilingual Lexicons, Paper presented at the workshop on Web-Based Language Documentation and Description, 12–15, December 2000, Philadelphia, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Pianta, E., Bentivogli, L., and Girardi, C. (2002). MultiWordNet: Developing an Aligned Multilingual Database. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Global WordNet, Mysore, India, January 21–25, 2002Google Scholar
  26. Sacco R. (2005) Ordinary Language and Legal Language. In Barbara P. (ed.), Ordinary Language and Legal Language, Giuffre, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  27. Sowa (J.), Building, Sharing, and Merging Ontologies,∼sowa/ontology/ontoshar.htmGoogle Scholar
  28. Temmerman R., Tummers J. (2003) Representing Multilingual and Culture-Specific Knowledge in a VAT RegulatoryOntology. In: Jarrar M. et al (eds) Proceedings oof the Worm 2003 Workshop at OTM Conference, Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  29. Valente A. (1995) Legal Knowledge Engineering: A Modelling Approach, Amsterdam, IOS PressGoogle Scholar
  30. Vossen, P., Peters W., and Díez-Orzas, P. (1997). The Multilingual design of the EuroWordNet Database. In Mahesh K. (ed.), Ontologies and multilingual NLP, Proceedings of IJCAI-97 workshop, Nagoya, Japan, August 23–29Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wim Peters
    • 1
  • Maria-Teresa Sagri
    • 2
  • Daniela Tiscornia
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.NLP Group, Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Istituto di Teoria e Tecniche per l’Informazione Giuridica del Consiglio, Nazionale delle RicercheRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations