, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 197–211 | Cite as

Legal Facts in Argumentation-Based Litigation Games

  • Minghui Xiong
  • Frank Zenker


This paper analyzes legal fact-argumentation in the framework of the argumentation-based litigation game (ALG) by Xiong (Leg Sci 370(9):16–19, 2012). Rather than as an ontological one, an ALG treats a legal fact as a fact-qua-claim whose acceptability depends on the reasons supporting it. In constructing their facts-qua-claims, parties to an ALG must interact to maintain a game-theoretic equilibrium. We compare the general interactional constraints that the civil (a.k.a. ‘continental’) and common law systems assign, and detail what the civil, administrative, and criminal codes of mainland China require of the suitor (S), the respondent (R), and the trier (T) to establish their respective S-, R- and T-facts. We also offer an improved version of the legal syllogism.


Legal fact Argumentation-based litigation game Legal syllogism Legal five-part argument Fact-qua-claim Fact-argumentation Equilibrium 



The first author acknowledges funding from the Chinese MOE Projects for Key University Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences (No. 15JJD720014), the National Social Science Fund of China (No. 13AZX0017), and a Guangdong Province Pearl River Distinguished Professorship (2013). The second author acknowledges an “Understanding China”-Fellowship from the Confucius Institute (HANBAN), and funding through the European Union’s FP 7 framework program (No. 1225/02/03) as well as the Volkswagen Foundation (No. 90,531).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Logic and CognitionGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Konstanz University, PhilosophyKonstanzGermany
  3. 3.Lund University, Department of PhilosophyLundSweden
  4. 4.SAS, Institute of PhilosophyBratislavaSlovakia

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