Archival Science

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 65–83 | Cite as

A question documentation model on the needs of comparative research

  • John Kallas
  • Apostolos LinardisEmail author
Original paper


A questionnaire, as a basic tool of organization of scientific observation, consists of two schemas: a data schema that corresponds to the specifications and the conceptual determinations of scientific vocabulary and a communicative schema that organizes the communication between the scientists and respondents depending on the particular characteristics of the asked population. The objective of this paper is the design of a documentation model for the questions of a questionnaire that would allow the detection of similar questions throughout a database. Such a model can successfully manage the documentation problems of comparative longitudinal research, whereas the questions of a questionnaire are repeated and changed slightly or go unchanged through the waves. It can also help researchers that are concerned with secondary analysis, for the detection of similar questions of similar or even different studies.


Question retrieval Documentation model Comparative research Longitudinal studies Metadata 


  1. Blank G, Rasmussen KB (2004) The data documentation initiative: the value and significance of a worldwide standard. Soc Sci Comput Rev 22(3):307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Capillupi C (2008) Computer—assisted longitudinal surveys design and implementation. J Int Soc Res 1(5):138–155Google Scholar
  3. Dale A (1993) Le rôle de l’analyse secondaire dans la recherche en sciences sociales. Sociétés contemporaines 14–15:7–21Google Scholar
  4. Date CJ (1995) An introduction to database systems. Addison Welsey, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  5. DDI (n.d) Getting started with DDI 3.0. Retrieved 15 November 2009:
  6. Doorn P, Tjalsma G (2007) Introduction: archiving research data. Archival Sci 7:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Foucault M (1969) L’ arhéologie du savoir. GallimardGoogle Scholar
  8. Granda P, Hadorn R, Wolf C (2008) Harmonizing survey data, paper presented at the 7th international conference on social science methodology, Berlin, 25–28 JuneGoogle Scholar
  9. Hakim C (1982) Secondary analysis of social research. George Allen & Unwin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Howarth D (2000) Discourse. Open University Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  11. ISO/IEC 11179-1 (2004) Part 1: framework. Retrieved March 17, 2010:
  12. Kallas J (2008) Information technology in social research. The problem of data. NefeliGoogle Scholar
  13. Kallas J, Linardis A (2008) A documentation model for comparative research based on harmonization strategies. IASSIST Quarterly 32:12–25Google Scholar
  14. King G (1995) Replication, replication. Pol Sci Pol XXVIII(3):443–499Google Scholar
  15. Linardis A (2008) The design of comparative research and the harmonization problems. In: Kallas J, Kondyli D, Karagiannis J (eds) Methodological issues and research infrastructures in social sciences, Potamos, 77–95Google Scholar
  16. Norwegian Social Science Data Services (2004) European social survey 2004 data protocol. Retrieved March 26, 2009:
  17. Rasmussen KB, Blank G (2007) The data documentation initiative: a preservation standard for research. Archival Sci 7:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Robson C (2002) Real World research: a resource for social scientists and practitioner—researchers. Wiley, BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  19. Sundgren B (2003) Developing and implementing statistical metadata systems. Retrieved March 26, 2009:
  20. Vardigan M, Heus P, Thomas W (2008) Data documentation initiative: Toward a standard for the social sciences. Int J Digit Curation 3(1):107–113Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the AegeanMytileneGreece
  2. 2.National Centre for Social ResearchAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations