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An overview of the immunomodulatory effects exerted by probiotics and prebiotics in grouper fish

  • Jiun Yan LohEmail author
  • Hor Kuan Chan
  • Hok Chai Yam
  • Lionel Lian Aun In
  • Crystale Siew Ying Lim
Article
  • 33 Downloads

Abstract

While health benefits imparted by probiotics and prebiotics in various finfish have been extensively researched over the past few decades, little emphasis has been given to its role in immunomodulation in grouper fish health. From this billion-dollar aquaculture industry, the production of an estimated 100,000 tons per annum of grouper fish is required to fulfill the needs of the global market by 2020. Thus, this huge demand has resulted in a rapid rise of grouper fish farms, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Unfortunately, grouper farming is often blighted by viral and bacterial diseases, which consequently devastate yields, resulting in economic losses. This review provides an overview of the functional role of probiotics and prebiotics, with specific emphasis on their immunomodulatory effects toward the advancement of grouper fish farming as one of the rising aquaculture commodities in the near future. Types of grouper-related diseases, probiotic strains, prebiotic types, dietary manipulations, immunological functions, and immunomodulatory mechanisms are reviewed and discussed in this article.

Keywords

Dietary supplementation Grouper fish Immunomodulation Probiotics Prebiotics 

Abbreviations:

ACH

Alternative complement activity

AMP

Adenosine monophosphate

CD

Cluster of differentiation

CFU

Colony-forming unit

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

DGGE

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization

FISH

Fluorescent in situ hybridization

GIT

Gastrointestinal tract

IFN-γ

Interferon-gamma

Ig

Immunoglobulin

IL

Interleukin

LAB

Lactic acid bacteria

LPS

Lipopolysaccharides

NGS

Next-generation sequencing

MAMP

Microbe-associated molecular pattern

MBG

Mushroom beta-glucan mixture

PAMP

Pathogen-associated molecular pattern

PBL

Peripheral blood leukocyte

PI

Phagocytic index

RBA

Respiratory burst activity

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

T-RFLP

Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-beta

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

VNN

viral nervous necrosis

WHO

World Health Organization

Notes

Author Contributions

J.Y.L. contributed to the introduction, disease, dietary supplementation, manuscript improvement, and conclusion sections. H.K.C. contributed to the probiotic section. H.C.Y. contributed to the prebiotic section. L.L.A.I. contributed to the immunomodulation section. C.S.Y.L. contributed to the editing and compilation of the manuscript

Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by UCSI–CERVIE PSIF Grant (Proj-in-FAS-031). The authors would like to thank the reviewers have made valuable comments and suggestions that have improved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Functional Food Research Group (FFRG), Faculty of Applied SciencesUCSI UniversityKuala LumpurMalaysia

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