Effect of hydraulic loading rate on the growth of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi.) and Gotukola (Centella asiatica (L.)) using phytoremediated aquaculture wastewater in aquaponics

  • K. K. T. Nuwansi
  • A. K. VermaEmail author
  • G. Rathore
  • M. H. Chandrakant
  • G. P. W. A. Prabhath
  • R. M. Peter


The study evaluates optimum hydraulic loading rate (HLR) based on the fish and plant production performance and nutrient removal percentage in aquaponics. The growth of Gotukola (Centella asiatica (L.))—a leafy vegetable as well as traditional medicinal plant—and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi.)—a high demand ornamental fish—were evaluated at three different HLRs, viz. 2.6 m day−1 (T1), 7.8 m day−1 (T2), and 13.0 m day−1 (T3). Treated aquaculture wastewater was utilized in a combination of the freshwater in 1:1 ratio with 2.1 kg m−3 fish stocking density. The highest fish mean length; weight; feed conversion ratio; specific growth rate; NH3, NO2, and NO3 removal percentage; and plant growth parameters were observed. Considering fish (koi carp) and plants (Gotukola) growth parameters as well as nutrient removal percentages, a HLR of 7.8 m day−1 was found to be the optimum in aquaponics.


Aquaponics Aquaculture wastewater Hydraulic loading rate Nutrient removal Phytoremediation 



The authors are grateful to the Director of ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai, for providing all the necessary facilities.

Funding information

The experiment was funded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. K. T. Nuwansi
    • 1
  • A. K. Verma
    • 1
    Email author
  • G. Rathore
    • 2
  • M. H. Chandrakant
    • 1
  • G. P. W. A. Prabhath
    • 3
  • R. M. Peter
    • 1
  1. 1.Aquaculture DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries EducationAndheri (W)India
  2. 2.ICAR-National Bureau of Fish Genetic ResourcesLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Aquatic Environment and Health Management DivisionCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationAndheri (W)India

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