Histopathology associated with infection by Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus (Nematoda) in farmed Brycon cephalus (Characiformes) from Peru: a potential fish health problem

  • Norma L. S. Rivadeneyra
  • Omar Mertins
  • Ruben C. Cuadros
  • Jose C. O. Malta
  • Lorena V. de Matos
  • Patrick D. MathewsEmail author


We describe the histopathological damage caused by parasite infection in farmed specimens of matrinxã Brycon cephalus, an economic important fish for aquaculture in the Amazon region. The fish were collected from an extensive fish farm, nearby the city of Nauta, Department of Loreto, Peru. Parasitic nematodes were found infecting the small intestine in 73 of 80 specimens (91.25%) of B. cephalus. According to morphological features of the examined specimens using light and electronic microscopy, the nematode was identified as Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus. Histological sections of the small intestine showed important damages on the tissue, such as desquamation, abrasion, compression, hypertrophy, and villi loss as well as necrosis in muscle layer, submucosa, and mucosa. This is the first report of tissue damage occurrences in the concerned host from fish farm in Peruvian Amazon, and it confirms the high pathogenicity of the nematode species and further points out the need of improving the strategies of parasitic prevention and control in order to better prevent future disease outbreaks that compromise production.


Aquaculture Brycon cephalus Histopathology Nematoda Peru 



N.L.S. Rivadeneyra thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Tecnológica, CONCYTEC (Peru), for the financial support (grant No. 230-2015 FONDECYT) provided for the Master studies. P.D. Mathews thanks São Paulo Research Foundation, FAPESP, for the Post-Doc fellowship (grant No. 2018/20482-3). O. Mertins thanks FAPESP for the research financial support (grants: 2015/23948-5 and 2016/13368-4). The authors thank G.M. James for reviewing the English idiom.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norma L. S. Rivadeneyra
    • 1
  • Omar Mertins
    • 2
  • Ruben C. Cuadros
    • 1
  • Jose C. O. Malta
    • 3
  • Lorena V. de Matos
    • 4
  • Patrick D. Mathews
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and ZootechnicsUniversidad Peruana Cayetano HerediaLimaPeru
  2. 2.Department of Biophysics, Paulista Scholl of MedicineFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Parasitology and Pathology of FishNational Institute of Amazonian ResearchManausBrazil
  4. 4.Department of MorphologyFederal University of AmazonasManausBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Zoology, Institute of BiosciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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