Aquaculture International

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 335–347 | Cite as

Combined effect of temperature, salinity, and rearing density on the larval growth of the black shell strain and wild population of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas

  • Chengxun Xu
  • Qi LiEmail author
  • Jindou Chong


Crassostrea gigas is a commercially important species which is the mostly widely cultured in the world. However, most of the oyster broodstock in China remains unselected. Through a 7-generation of selection on the shell color and growth traits of adult oysters, an excellent strain of C. gigas with black shell coloration and mantle has been developed. In order to facilitate the industrialized breeding, it is necessary to explore the growth performance of the black shell strain in larval stage and find out the optimal conditions for larval development. In this study, the accumulated growth rate and survival rate of the black shell strain and wild population of C. gigas larvae were measured respectively, and a central composite design as well as a response surface method was used to investigate the combined effect of temperature, salinity, and rearing density on the growth of both the two populations. No significant differences were found in survival rate between the two populations, and two model equations for the growth of the two populations were established. The optimizations of accumulated growth rate for two populations were explored. When the temperature, salinity, and rearing density was 25.14 °C, 30.28 psu, and 1.00 ind. ml−1, respectively, the accumulated growth rate for the black shell strain maximized 15.40 μm day−1. With a combination of temperature of 25.06 °C, salinity of 29.27 psu and rearing density of 1.00 ind. ml−1, the maximum value of accumulated growth rate for wild population was 13.20 μm day−1. Furthermore, the larval growth rates were compared between the black shell strain and wild population, and the larvae of the black shell strain significantly grew faster than those of wild population when temperature, salinity and rearing density in a suitable range.


Crassostrea gigas Larvae Black-shell color strain Growth Central composite design Response surface methodology 


Funding information

This work was supported by the grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772843), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (201762014), Shandong Province (2016ZDJS06A06), and Taishan Scholars Seed Project of Shandong.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.


  1. Alfnes F, Guttormsen AG, Steine G, Kolstad K (2006) Consumers' willingness to pay for the color of salmon: a choice experiment with real economic incentives. Am J Agric Econ 88:1050–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayne BL, Thompson RJ, Widdows J, (1976) Physiological integrations. Marine Mussels: Their Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge Univ Press 261–292Google Scholar
  3. Bussell JA, Gidman EA, Causton DR, Gwynn-Jones D, Malham SK, Jones MLM, Reynolds B, Seed R (2008) Changes in the immune response and metabolic fingerprint of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) in response to lowered salinity and physical stress. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 358:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cáceres-Puig JI, Abasolo-Pacheco F, Mazón-Suastegui JM, Maeda-Martínez AN, Saucedo PE (2007) Effect of temperature on growth and survival of Crassostrea corteziensis spat during late-nursery culturing at the hatchery. Aquaculture 272:417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carregosa V, Figueira E, Gil AM, Pereira S, Pinto J, Soares AM, Freitas R (2014) Tolerance of Venerupis philippinarum to salinity: osmotic and metabolic aspects. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 171:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Melo CMR, Durland E, Langdon C (2016) Improvements in desirable traits of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, as a result of five generations of selection on the West Coast, USA. Aquaculture 460:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deaton LE, Derby JG, Subhedar N, Greenberg MJ (1989) Osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in two species of bivalve mollusc: Limnoperna fortunei and Mytilopsis leucophaeta. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 133:67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dégremont L, Nourry M, Maurouard E (2015) Mass selection for survival and resistance to OsHV-1 infection in Crassostrea gigas spat in field conditions: response to selection after four generations. Aquaculture. 446:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Evans S, Langdon C (2006) Direct and indirect responses to selection on individual body weight in the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ). Aquaculture. 261:546–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gjedrem T, Robinson N, Rye M (2012) The importance of selective breeding in aquaculture to meet future demands for animal protein: a review. Aquaculture. 350-353:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. His E, Robert R, Dinet A (1989) Combined effects of temperature and salinity on fed and starved larvae of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas. Mar Biol 100:455–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Honkoop P, Van der Meer J (1998) Experimentally induced effects of water temperature and immersion time on reproductive output of bivalves in the Wadden Sea. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 220:227–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ji C, Cao L, Li F (2015) Toxicological evaluation of two pedigrees of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as bioindicators of heavy metal contaminants using metabolomics. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 39:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jiang W, Li J, Gao Y, Mao Y, Jiang Z, Du M, Zhang Y, Fang J (2016) Effects of temperature change on physiological and biochemical responses of yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. Aquaculture. 451:463–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kahn BE, Wansink B (2004) The influence of assortment structure on perceived variety and consumption quantities. J Consum Res 30:519–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kang KH, Park HJ, Kim YH, Seon SC, Zhou B (2008) Filtration and oxygen consumption rates on various growth stages of Scapharca broughtonii spat. Aquac Res 39:195–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kang J-H, Kang H-S, Lee J-M, An C-M, Kim S-Y, Lee Y-M, Kim J-J (2013) Characterizations of shell and mantle edge pigmentation of a Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Korean peninsula. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 26:1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim W, Huh H, Huh S-H, Lee T (2001) Effects of salinity on endogenous rhythm of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia: Veneridae). Mar Biol 138:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim SL, Kwon SH, Lee H-G, Yu OH (2017) Effects of environmental and biological conditions on the recruitment and growth of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum on the west coast of Korea. Ocean Sci J 52:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Laing I (2002) Effect of salinity on growth and survival of king scallop spat (Pecten maximus). Aquaculture. 205:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Legat JFA, Puchnick-Legat A, de Miranda Gomes CHA, Sühnel S, de Melo CMR (2017) Effects of salinity on fertilization and larviculture of the mangrove oyster, Crassostrea gasar in the laboratory. Aquaculture. 468:545–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li L, Li Q (2010) Effects of stocking density, temperature, and salinity on larval survival and growth of the red race of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Aquac Int 18:447–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li X, Dong S, Lei Y, Li Y (2007) The effect of stocking density of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis on rice and crab seed yields in rice–crab culture systems. Aquaculture. 273:487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu B, Dong B, Tang B, Zhang T, Xiang J (2006) Effect of stocking density on growth, settlement and survival of clam larvae, Meretrix meretrix. Aquaculture. 258:344–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nell JA, Holliday JE (1988) Effects of salinity on the growth and survival of Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea commercialis) and Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae and spat. Aquaculture. 68:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nicolini MH, Penry DL (2000) Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  27. Nie H, Chen P, Huo Z, Chen Y, Hou X, Yang F, Yan X (2017) Effects of temperature and salinity on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in different colour strains of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. Aquac Res 48:2778–2786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sastry A (1963) Reproduction of the bay scallop, Aequipecten irradians Lamarck Influence of temperature on maturation and spawning. Biol Bull 125:146–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saucedo PE, Ocampo La, Monteforte M, Bervera H (2004) Effect of temperature on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in the Calafia mother-of-pearl oyster, Pinctada mazatlanica (Hanley, 1856). Aquaculture. 229:377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schulte E (1975) Influence of algal concentration and temperature on the filtration rate of Mytilus edulis. Mar Biol 30:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shin Y-K, Lee W-C, Jun R-H, Kim S-Y, Park J-J (2009) Survival of the ark shell, Scapharca subcrenata and physiological and histological changes at decreasing salinity. Fish Aquat Sci 12:209–218Google Scholar
  32. Tan S-H, Wong T-M (1996) Effect of salinity on hatching, larval growth, survival and settling in the tropical oyster Crassostrea belcheri (Sowerby). Aquaculture. 145:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Velasco LA, Barros J (2008) Experimental larval culture of the Caribbean scallops Argopecten nucleus and Nodipecten nodosus. Aquac Res 39:603–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Walne P (1972) The influence of current speed, body size and water temperature on the filtration rate of five species of bivalves. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 52:345–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wan S, Li Q, Liu T, Yu H, Kong L (2017) Heritability estimates for shell color-related traits in the golden shell strain of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) using a molecular pedigree. Aquaculture. 476:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang X, Li Q, Kong L, Yu R, Yu H (2016) Evaluation of mass selective breeding lines of black-shell and white-shell Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for fast growth. J Fish Sci China 23(5):1099–1107Google Scholar
  37. Widdows J, Bayne B (1971) Temperature acclimation of Mytilus edulis with reference to its energy budget. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 51:827–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xu L, Li Q, Yu H et al (2017) Estimates of heritability for growth and shell color traits and their genetic correlations in the black shell strain of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Mar Biotechnol 19(5):421–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yan X, Zhang G, Yang F (2006) Effects of diet, stocking density, and environmental factors on growth, survival, and metamorphosis of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum larvae. Aquaculture. 253:350–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of EducationOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production ProcessesQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations