Aquaculture International

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 169–185 | Cite as

Diagnosis and potential treatments for acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND): a review

  • Harvey M. Santos
  • Ching-Yi Tsai
  • Kenth Roger A. Maquiling
  • Lemmuel L. Tayo
  • Abdul R. Mariatulqabtiah
  • Chi-Wen Lee
  • Kuo Pin ChuangEmail author


Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) or formerly known as early mortality syndrome (EMS) is an emerging disease that has caused significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The primary causative agent of AHPND is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that has gained plasmids encoding the fatal binary toxins Pir A/Pir B that cause rapid death of the infected shrimp. In this review, the current research studies and information about AHPND in shrimps have been presented. Molecular diagnostic tools and potential treatments regarding AHPND were also included. This review also includes relevant findings which may serve as guidelines that can help for further investigation and studies on AHPND or other shrimp diseases.


Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) Pir A Pir B Diagnosis Treatment 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Research Center for Animal Biologics, from The Featured Areas Research Center Program within the framework of the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST 107-3017-F-020-002), Taiwan, R.O.C.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Program in Animal Vaccine Technology, International CollegeNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyNeipuTaiwan
  2. 2.School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering and SciencesMapúa UniversityIntramurosPhilippines
  3. 3.Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular SciencesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Post-Baccalaureate Veterinary MedicineAsia UniversityTaichungTaiwan
  5. 5.Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, College of Veterinary MedicineNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyNeipuTaiwan
  6. 6.Research Center for Animal BiologicsNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyNeipuTaiwan

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