Aquaculture International

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 113–125 | Cite as

Usage of plant natural products for prevention and control of white feces syndrome (WFS) in Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farming in India

  • Pandi Palanikumar
  • Dinamella Wahjuningrum
  • Paramachandran Abinaya
  • Mariavincent Michael Babu
  • Thavasimuthu CitarasuEmail author


White feces syndrome (WFS) causes severe economic damages in Litopenaeus vannamei culture by the microsporidian parasite, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), and it affects mainly hepatopancreas leading to digestive and absorptive problems, and finally the shrimp have poor growth and immune suppression. By improving the health status of hepatopancreas and digestive systems, the disease may be reduced or controlled by alternative approaches especially treating with herbal active principles. The herbal active characteristics like hepatoprotective activity, antioxidants, appetizers, and digestive and growth promoters highly reduce or control the EHP problems due to the broad diversity of active compounds in herbal products. In the present review, we discussed the use, formulation, and method of application of the herbal extracts like Citrus limon, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Borassus flabellifer, and Vigna mungo in Indian L. vannamei culture systems by the farmers against white feces syndrome.


Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) Herbal treatment Litopenaeus vannamei White feces syndrome (WFS) 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dolphin Shrimp Hatchery, Melamunthal VillageRamanathapuram DistrictIndia
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine ScienceBogor Agricultural UniversityBogorIndonesia
  3. 3.Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST)Manonmaniam Sundaranar University RajakkamangalamTirunelveliIndia

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