Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1583–1597 | Cite as

Study of the requirements of dietary cholesterol at two different growth stages of Pacific white shrimps, Litopenaeus vannamei

  • Wei Zhang
  • Qihui YangEmail author
  • Beiping Tan
  • Fengmei Wang
  • Xiaohui Dong
  • Shuyan Chi
  • Hongyu Liu
  • Shuang Zhang
  • Hualang Wang


Two 8-week feeding experiments were conducted to investigate the cholesterol requirements of Litopenaeus vannamei at two different growth stages—with initial body weights of 0.61 ± 0.00 g (juvenile) and 4.25 ± 0.00 g (subadult). Six diets containing cholesterol (C) 0.03% (FM-fish meal), 0.09% (0.05% C), 0.14% (0.1% C), 0.27% (0.2% C), 0.47% (0.4% C), and 0.90% (0.8% C) were prepared with red fish meal, dehulled soybean meal and peanut meal as the protein source, and fish oil as the fat source. Two levels of phytosterol (P) substitutes—0.05% (0.05% P) and 0.8% (0.8% P)—for dietary cholesterol were evaluated. Results showed dietary cholesterol levels had significant effects on the weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of juveniles (P < 0.05). Crude fat in the 0.05% C and 0.1% C groups of subadults was significantly higher than that in the FM group (P < 0.05). The contents of CHOL, HDL, LDL, and liver CHOL were significantly associated with the content of cholesterol (P < 0.05). The dietary cholesterol proportion significantly affected serum AST and ALT (P < 0.05). Phytosterol supplementation presented growth-promoting effects for juvenile L. vannamei. A broken-line equation for weight growth showed the optimum dietary cholesterol requirement was 0.16% for L. vannamei juveniles (0.61 ± 0.00 g), and no extra dietary cholesterol supplementation was needed for L. vannamei subadults (4.25 ± 0.00 g).


Litopenaeus vannamei Cholesterol Growth performance Body composition Phytosterol substitution 



We are grateful to the Key Laboratory of Aquatic, Livestock and Poultry Feed Science and Technology in South China, Ministry of Agriculture, and Aquatic Animals Precision Nutrition and High Efficiency Feed Engineering Research Center of Guangdong Province, for providing technical assistances.

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: 31802316; Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China, Grant/Award Number: 201003020; Guangdong Nature Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: 2015A030313621, 2016A030313749; and Industry Technology and Development Special Fund Project of Guangdong Province, Grant/Award Number: 2013B021100017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qihui Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Beiping Tan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fengmei Wang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xiaohui Dong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuyan Chi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongyu Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuang Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hualang Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of FisheriesGuangdong Ocean UniversityZhanjiangChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Aquatic, Livestock and Poultry Feed Science and Technology in South ChinaMinistry of AgricultureZhanjiangChina
  3. 3.Aohua Aquatic Feed Co. Ltd.ZhanjiangChina

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