Advertisement

Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 6, pp 1583–1597 | Cite as

Study of the requirements of dietary cholesterol at two different growth stages of Pacific white shrimps, Litopenaeus vannamei

  • Wei Zhang
  • Qihui YangEmail author
  • Beiping Tan
  • Fengmei Wang
  • Xiaohui Dong
  • Shuyan Chi
  • Hongyu Liu
  • Shuang Zhang
  • Hualang Wang
Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

Two 8-week feeding experiments were conducted to investigate the cholesterol requirements of Litopenaeus vannamei at two different growth stages—with initial body weights of 0.61 ± 0.00 g (juvenile) and 4.25 ± 0.00 g (subadult). Six diets containing cholesterol (C) 0.03% (FM-fish meal), 0.09% (0.05% C), 0.14% (0.1% C), 0.27% (0.2% C), 0.47% (0.4% C), and 0.90% (0.8% C) were prepared with red fish meal, dehulled soybean meal and peanut meal as the protein source, and fish oil as the fat source. Two levels of phytosterol (P) substitutes—0.05% (0.05% P) and 0.8% (0.8% P)—for dietary cholesterol were evaluated. Results showed dietary cholesterol levels had significant effects on the weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of juveniles (P < 0.05). Crude fat in the 0.05% C and 0.1% C groups of subadults was significantly higher than that in the FM group (P < 0.05). The contents of CHOL, HDL, LDL, and liver CHOL were significantly associated with the content of cholesterol (P < 0.05). The dietary cholesterol proportion significantly affected serum AST and ALT (P < 0.05). Phytosterol supplementation presented growth-promoting effects for juvenile L. vannamei. A broken-line equation for weight growth showed the optimum dietary cholesterol requirement was 0.16% for L. vannamei juveniles (0.61 ± 0.00 g), and no extra dietary cholesterol supplementation was needed for L. vannamei subadults (4.25 ± 0.00 g).

Keywords

Litopenaeus vannamei Cholesterol Growth performance Body composition Phytosterol substitution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Key Laboratory of Aquatic, Livestock and Poultry Feed Science and Technology in South China, Ministry of Agriculture, and Aquatic Animals Precision Nutrition and High Efficiency Feed Engineering Research Center of Guangdong Province, for providing technical assistances.

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: 31802316; Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China, Grant/Award Number: 201003020; Guangdong Nature Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: 2015A030313621, 2016A030313749; and Industry Technology and Development Special Fund Project of Guangdong Province, Grant/Award Number: 2013B021100017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical statement

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

References

  1. AOAC (1995) Determination of the components in Foods and Food Ingredients. In K (ed) Official methods of analysis of AOAC [M], 16th edn. Analytical Chemist, Inc., Arlington, VAGoogle Scholar
  2. Briggs MRP, Jauncey K, Brown JH (1988) The cholesterol and lecithin requirements of juvenile prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) fed semi-purified diets. Aquaculture 70:121–129Google Scholar
  3. Brum A, Pereira SA, Cardoso L, Chagas EC, Chaves FCM, Mouriño JLP, Martins ML (2018) Blood biochemical parameters and melanomacrophage centers in Nile tilapia fed essential oils of clove basil and ginger. Fish Shellfish Immunol 74:444–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Castell JD, Covey JF (1976) Dietary lipid requirements of adult lobsters, Homarus americanus (ME). J Nutr 106:1159–1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chaplin AE, Huggins AK, Munday KA (1967) The distribution of L-α-aminotransferases in Carcinus maenas. Comp Biochem Physiol 20:195–198Google Scholar
  6. Chen HY (1993) Requirements of marine shrimp, Penaeus monodon, juveniles for phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Aquaculture 109:165–176Google Scholar
  7. Chen JH (2006) Effects of fermentation, exogenous enzyme and feeding stimulants on utilization of soybean meal protein by Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) [D]. Ocean University of China, Qingdao (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  8. Chen HY, Jenn JS (1991) Combined effects of dietary phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol on the growth, survival and body lipid composition of marine shrimp, Penaeus penicillatus. Aquaculture 96:167–178Google Scholar
  9. Chen L, Wang C, Huang S, Gong B, Yu J, Shi Q, Chen G (2014) Effects of individual and multiple fatty acids (palmitate, oleate and docosahaexenoic acid) on cell viability and lipid metabolism in LO2 human liver cells. Mol Med Rep 10:3254–3260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Coutteau P (2012) Raw material bottlenecks in aqua feed formulation: fish meal and cholesterol as test cases. In: Advances in aquaculture nutrition VI. Memoirs of the 6th International Symposium on Aquaculture NutritionGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Abramo LR (1998) Nutritional requirements of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: comparisons with species of Penaeid shrimp. Rev Fish Sci 6:153–163Google Scholar
  12. D’Abramo LR, Bordner CE, Conklin DE, Baum NA (1984) Sterol requirement of juvenile lobsters, Homarus sp. Aquaculture 42:13–25Google Scholar
  13. D’Abramo LR, Wright JS, Wright KH, Bordner CE, Conklin DE (1985) Sterol requirement of cultured juvenile crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Aquaculture 49:245–255Google Scholar
  14. Deshimaru O, Kuroki K (1974) Studies on a purified diet for prawn. 2. Optimum contents of cholesterol and glucosamine in the diet. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 40:421–424Google Scholar
  15. Duerr EO, Walsh WA (1996) Evaluation of cholesterol additions to a soyabean meal-based diet for juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), in an outdoor growth trial. Aquac Nutr 2:111–116Google Scholar
  16. Gong H, Lawrence AL, Jiang DH, Castille FL, Gatlin DM III (2000) Lipid nutrition of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei: I. Dietary cholesterol and de-oiled soy lecithin requirements and their interaction. Aquaculture 190:305–324Google Scholar
  17. Han T, Wang JT, Li XY, Yang YX, Yang M, Tian HL, Zheng PQ, Wang CL (2018) Effects of dietary phospholipid and cholesterol levels on growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Aquac Nutr 24:164–172Google Scholar
  18. Hernández PV, Olvera-Novoa MA, Rouse DB (2004) Effect of dietary cholesterol on growth and survival of juvenile redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture 236:405–411Google Scholar
  19. Holme MH, Zeng C, Southgate PC (2006) The effects of supplemental dietary cholesterol on growth, development and survival of mud crab, Scylla serrata, megalopa fed semi-purified diets. Aquaculture 261:1328–1334Google Scholar
  20. Hu Y, Tan BP, Mai KS, Ai QH, Zhang L, Zheng SX (2011) Effects of dietary menhaden oil, soybean oil and soybean lecithin oil at different ratios on growth, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquac Int 19:459–473Google Scholar
  21. Juinio MAR, Cobb JS (1992) Natural diet and feeding habits of the postlarval lobster Homarus americanus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 85:83–91Google Scholar
  22. Kalhoro H, Zhou J, Hua Y, Ng WK, Ye L, Zhang J, Shao Q (2018) Soy protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal in diets for juvenile Acanthopagrus schlegelii: effects on growth, phosphorus discharge and digestive enzyme activity. Aquac Res 49:1896–1906Google Scholar
  23. Kanazawa A, Tanaka N, Teshima S, Kashiwada K (1971) Nutritional requirements of prawn. 2. Requirement for sterols. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 37:211–215Google Scholar
  24. Kovacs MIP, Ackman RG, Anderson WE, Ward J (1978) Sterols of low-erucic acid rapeseed oils. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 11:219–221Google Scholar
  25. Kumar V, Sinha AK, Romano N, Allen KM, Bowman BA, Thompson KR, Tidwell JH (2018) Metabolism and nutritive role of cholesterol in the growth, gonadal development, and reproduction of crustaceans. Rev Fish Sci Aquacult 26:254–273Google Scholar
  26. Lee JE, Seo MH, Chang YH, Kwak HS (2010) Cholesterol removal from squid liver oil by crosslinked β-cyclodextrin. J Am Oil Chem Soc 87:233–238Google Scholar
  27. Li J, Liu Z, Guo M, Xu K, Jiang M, Lu A, Gao XY (2015a) Metabolomics profiling to investigate the pharmacologic mechanisms of berberine for the treatment of high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015:1–9Google Scholar
  28. Li PY, Wang JY, Song ZD, Zhang LM, Li XX, Pan Q (2015b) Evaluation of soy protein concentrate as a substitute for fishmeal in diets for juvenile starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus). Aquaculture 448:578–585Google Scholar
  29. Li W, Pan X, Cheng W, Cheng Y, Yin Y, Chen J, Xu GH, Xie LW (2018) Serum biochemistry, histology and transcriptomic profile analysis reflects liver inflammation and damage following dietary histamine supplementation in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Fish Shellfish Immunol 77:83–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Mondy N, Grossi V, Cathalan E, Delbecque JP, Mermillod-Blondin F, Douady CJ (2014) Sterols and steroids in a freshwater crustacean (Proasellus meridianus): hormonal response to nutritional input. Invertebr Biol 133:99–107Google Scholar
  31. Morris TC, Samocha TM, Davis DA, Fox JM (2011) Cholesterol supplements for Litopenaeus vannamei reared on plant based diets in the presence of natural productivity. Aquaculture 314:140–144Google Scholar
  32. Nazeri S, Farhangi M, Modarres S (2017) The effect of different dietary inclusion levels of rutin (a flavonoid) on some liver enzyme activities and oxidative stress indices in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) exposed to Oxytetracycline. Aquac Res 48:1–7Google Scholar
  33. NRC (2011) Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp. The National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. Rabergh CM, Bylund G, Eriksson JE (1991) Histopathological effects of microcystin-LR, a cyclic peptide toxin from the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Microcystis aeruginosa on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Aquat Toxicol 20:131–145Google Scholar
  35. Ren ZL, Li AJ, Xue CH (1994) Nutrition requirement of Penaeus chinensis for essential fatty acids. J Ocean Univ China 6:24–32 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  36. Romano N, Zeng C (2017) Cannibalism of decapod crustaceans and implications for their aquaculture: a review of its prevalence, influencing factors, and mitigating methods. Rev Fish Sci 25:42–69Google Scholar
  37. Sheen SS (2000) Dietary cholesterol requirement of juvenile mud crab Scylla serrata. Aquaculture 189:277–285Google Scholar
  38. Sheen SS, Liu PC, Chen SN, Chen JC (1994) Cholesterol requirement of juvenile tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Aquaculture 125:131–137Google Scholar
  39. Shudo K (1971) Studies on formula feed for Kuruma prawn-IV. On the growth-promoting effects on both squid liver oil and cholesterol. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 65:129–137Google Scholar
  40. Smith LL, Lee PG, Lawrence AL, Strawn K (1985) Growth and digestibility by three sizes of Penaeus vannamei Boone: effects of dietary protein level and protein source. Aquaculture 46:85–96Google Scholar
  41. Teshima S (1972) Sterol metabolism memoirs of the faculty of fisheries. Kagoshima Univ 21:69–147Google Scholar
  42. Teshima SI, Kanazawa A (1983) Digestibility of dietary lipids in the prawn. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 49:963–966Google Scholar
  43. Teshima SI, Kanazawa A (1986) Nutritive value of sterols for the juvenile prawn. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 52:1417–1422Google Scholar
  44. Teshima SI, Kanazawa A, Okamoto H (1974) Absorption of sterols and cholesterol esters in a prawn, Penaeus japonicas. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 40:1015–1019Google Scholar
  45. Teshima SI, Kanazawa A, Sasada H (1983) Nutritional value of dietary cholesterol and other sterols to larval prawn, Penaeus japonicus Bate. Aquaculture 31:159–167Google Scholar
  46. Teshima SI, Kanazawa A, Koshio S, Kondo N (1989) Nutritive value of sitosterol for the prawn Penaeus japonicus. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 54:1115–1122Google Scholar
  47. Teshima S, Ishikawa M, Koshio S, Kanazawa A (1997) Assessment of cholesterol requirements in the shrimp, Penaeus japonicus. Aquac Nutr 3:247–253Google Scholar
  48. Thongrod S, Boonyaratpalin M (1998) Cholesterol and lecithin requirement of juvenile banana shrimp, Penaeus merguiensis. Aquaculture 161:315–321Google Scholar
  49. Tocher DR, Bendiksen EÅ, Campbell PJ, Bell JG (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280:21–34Google Scholar
  50. Valitova JN, Sulkarnayeva AG, Minibayeva FV (2016) Plant sterols: diversity, biosynthesis, and physiological functions. Biochemistry 81:819–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang AM (2011) Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth and fat metabolism of gift strain of Nile tilapia [D]. Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  52. Wang JT, Han T, Li XY, Hu SX, Jiang YD, Wang CL (2016) Effects of dietary phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels on the growth, molt performance and fatty acid composition of juvenile swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. Anim Feed Sci Technol 216:225–233Google Scholar
  53. Yamamoto Y (1981) In: Egami N (ed) Fishes as Laboratory, Chapter 4Determination of toxicity by biochemical method. Soft Science, Tokyo, pp 568–574Google Scholar
  54. Yang Q, Zhou X, Zhou Q, Tan B, Chi S, Dong X (2009) Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone. Aquac Res 41:78–86Google Scholar
  55. Yang ST, Kreutzberger AJ, Lee J, Kiessling V, Tamm LK (2016) The role of cholesterol in membrane fusion. Chem Phys Lipids 199:136–143PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Yepiz-Plascencia G, Vargas-Albores F, Higuera-Ciapara I (2000) Penaeid shrimp hemolymph lipoproteins. Aquaculture 191:177–189Google Scholar
  57. Yun B (2012) Effects of dietary cholesterol, taurine and soya saponins on growth performance and cholesterol metabolism in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed high plant protein (D). Ocean university of China, Qingdao (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  58. Zhou M, Wu Z, Liang R, Gu N (2017) Effects of dietary taurine, carnitine and cholesterol supplementation on growth performance and immunological status of Litopenaeus vannamei under cold exposure. Aquac Res 48:1279–1290Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qihui Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Beiping Tan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fengmei Wang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Xiaohui Dong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuyan Chi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongyu Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shuang Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hualang Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition and Feed, College of FisheriesGuangdong Ocean UniversityZhanjiangChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Aquatic, Livestock and Poultry Feed Science and Technology in South ChinaMinistry of AgricultureZhanjiangChina
  3. 3.Aohua Aquatic Feed Co. Ltd.ZhanjiangChina

Personalised recommendations