Pharmacokinetics of two dosing forms of a recrystallized enrofloxacin as hydrochloride dihydrate in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus)

  • E Estrada-San Agustín
  • L Gutiérrez
  • M Bernad
  • H Castillo-Juárez
  • S Sánchez
  • H SumanoEmail author


A recrystallized solvate of enrofloxacin in the form of hydrochloride dihydrate (enro-C) has shown a greater bioavailability in other species and a higher solubility in water compared to standard enrofloxacin. This led to define the pharmacokinetics (PK) of enro-C in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus), when administered as in-feed medication, either by the addition of enro-C during food pelleting (T2) or by the coating of pre-manufactured pellets with a gelatin suspension containing enro-C (T1). T1 and T2 were both prepared with 3000 mg of enro-C/kg of feed, and a total dose of 10 mg/kg based on feed consumption. The trial was carried out in fresh water tanks, collecting blood samples twelve times during 70 h (three repetitions with five tilapias per sampling time). Maximum plasma concentrations (CMAX) for T1 and T2 were 1.35 ± 0.55 μg/mL and 1.92 ± 0.26 μg/mL, respectively. The time to achieve CMAX (TMAX) occurred almost simultaneously at 6.5 h. The area under the plasma vs time concentrations (AUC0-24) were 25.41 ± 24 μg/mL/h and 57.91 ± 30 μg/mL/h for T1 and T2, respectively. MIC data from available literature indicate that PK/PD ratios (CMAX/MIC90 and AUC0-24/MIC90) are higher in T2 compared to T1 in tilapia. Results indicate that the customary dose of enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) using enro-C reaches, in particular, higher values of CMAX and AUC0-24. Thus, based on these results, it is feasible to propose enro-C for the treatment of bacterial diseases in tilapia, preferably as was done in T2. However, before this happens, toxicity and drug-residue studies, as well as environmental and public health issues, must be resolved.


Tilapia Enrofloxacin Enro-C Pharmacokinetics PK/PD ratios 



The authors are grateful for the skillful definition of the new crystal form of enrofloxacin (enro-C) carried out at The School of Chemistry, Trinity College; Dublin, Republic of Ireland.

Funding information

This project was partially supported by CONACyT, project No. 203.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interests. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), owner of the patent, is open to licensing of enro-C.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • E Estrada-San Agustín
    • 1
  • L Gutiérrez
    • 1
  • M Bernad
    • 2
  • H Castillo-Juárez
    • 3
  • S Sánchez
    • 4
  • H Sumano
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Departamento de Fisiología y FarmacologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMéxico
  2. 2.Facultad de QuímicaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus CUMexico CityMéxico
  3. 3.Unidad Xochimilco, Departamento de Producción Acuícola y AnimalUniversidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Campus XochimilcoMexico CityMéxico
  4. 4.Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Departamento de SanidadUniversidad Autónoma de Baja CaliforniaEnsenadaMéxico

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