Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 337–347 | Cite as

Multiple feedings enhance the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei when fed a low-fish meal amino acid-supplemented diet

  • Alberto J. P. NunesEmail author
  • Hassan Sabry-Neto
  • Francisco Hélio Pires da Silva
  • Adhemar Rodrigues de Oliveira-Neto
  • Karthik Masagounder


In the coming years, supplementation of crystalline amino acids (CAAs) will become a standard practice driven by the trend towards low-fish meal diets. We have evaluated the effect of feeding juvenile L. vannamei several times a day versus two (2×) and four (4×) times using a low-fish meal diet supplemented with CAAs. A total of 1632 shrimp of 1.06 ± 0.16 g were stocked in 16 outdoor tanks of 1 m3 under 100 shrimp/m2. Shrimp were either fed manually, 2× or 4× daily, using one feeding tray per tank, or fed with an automatic feeder to deliver multiple (10) meals during the day or during the day and night (D&N) at programmed times. A diet containing 3% fish meal was prepared to contain supplemental levels of CAAs. After 11 weeks of rearing, survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency of shrimp were significantly affected by feeding frequency and time of feeding. Feeding 2× and 4× daily resulted in a lower survival compared to multiple times during the day or D&N. Shrimp body weight was enhanced with an increase in feeding frequency, from 8.74, 10.95, 11.33, and 11.33 g under 2×, 4×, and multiple feedings during the day or during D&N, respectively. FCR was also significantly affected, reducing from a high of 2.46 under 2× to 1.59 under multiple feedings D&N. Our findings indicate that it is more advantageous to feed juvenile L. vannamei multiple times a day when a low-fish meal amino acid-supplemented diet is used.


Multiple feeding Feeding frequency Amino acids Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Performance 



The first author acknowledges the support from a research productivity fellowship (CNPq/MCT, PQ# 303678/2017-8). We thank Dr. Leandro Fonseca Castro (Zeigler Bros Inc., USA) for his detailed drawing of our automatic feeding device.

Compliance with ethical standards

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LABOMAR—Instituto de Ciências do MarUniversidade Federal do CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Evonik Brasil LtdaSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH. NCHanau-WolfgangGermany

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