In the coming years, supplementation of crystalline amino acids (CAAs) will become a standard practice driven by the trend towards low-fish meal diets. We have evaluated the effect of feeding juvenile L. vannamei several times a day versus two (2×) and four (4×) times using a low-fish meal diet supplemented with CAAs. A total of 1632 shrimp of 1.06 ± 0.16 g were stocked in 16 outdoor tanks of 1 m3 under 100 shrimp/m2. Shrimp were either fed manually, 2× or 4× daily, using one feeding tray per tank, or fed with an automatic feeder to deliver multiple (10) meals during the day or during the day and night (D&N) at programmed times. A diet containing 3% fish meal was prepared to contain supplemental levels of CAAs. After 11 weeks of rearing, survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency of shrimp were significantly affected by feeding frequency and time of feeding. Feeding 2× and 4× daily resulted in a lower survival compared to multiple times during the day or D&N. Shrimp body weight was enhanced with an increase in feeding frequency, from 8.74, 10.95, 11.33, and 11.33 g under 2×, 4×, and multiple feedings during the day or during D&N, respectively. FCR was also significantly affected, reducing from a high of 2.46 under 2× to 1.59 under multiple feedings D&N. Our findings indicate that it is more advantageous to feed juvenile L. vannamei multiple times a day when a low-fish meal amino acid-supplemented diet is used.
Multiple feeding Feeding frequency Amino acids Shrimp Litopenaeus vannameiPerformance
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The first author acknowledges the support from a research productivity fellowship (CNPq/MCT, PQ# 303678/2017-8). We thank Dr. Leandro Fonseca Castro (Zeigler Bros Inc., USA) for his detailed drawing of our automatic feeding device.
Compliance with ethical standards
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
AOAC (2002) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
Arnold S, Smullen R, Briggs M, West M, Glencross B (2016) The combined effect of feed frequency and ration size of diets with and without microbial biomass on the growth and feed conversion of juvenile Penaeus monodon. Aquac Nutr 22:1340–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carvalho EA, Nunes AJP (2006) Effects of feeding frequency on feed leaching loss and grow-out patterns of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed under a diurnal feeding regime in pond enclosures. Aquaculture 252:494–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chi S, Tan B, Lin H et al (2011) Effects of supplementation of crystalline or coated methionine on growth performance and feed utilization of the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquac Nutr 17:e1–e9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Façanha FN, Oliveira-Neto AR, Figueiredo-Silva C, Nunes AJP (2016) Effect of shrimp stocking density and graded levels of dietary methionine over the growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in a green-water system. Aquaculture 463:16–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Façanha FN, Sabry-Neto H, Figueiredo-Silva C, Oliveira-Neto AR, Nunes AJP (2018) Minimum water exchange spares the requirement for dietary methionine for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared under intensive outdoor conditions. Aquac Res 49:1682–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Figueiredo-Silva C, Lemme A, Sangsue D, Kiriratnikom S (2015) Effect of DL-methionine supplementation on the success of almost total replacement of fish meal with soybean meal in diets for hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis mossambicus). Aquac Nutr 21:234–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu M, Zhang W, Bai N et al (2013) Effects of dietary crystalline methionine or oligo-methionine on growth performance and feed utilization of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed plant protein-enriched diets. Aquac Nutr 19:39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jescovitch LN, Ullman C, Rhodes M, Davis DA (2018) Effects of different feed management treatments on water quality for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquac Res 49:526–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunes AJP, Parsons GJ (2000) Size-related feeding and gastric evacuation measurements for the southern brown shrimp Penaeus subtilis. Aquaculture 187:133–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunes AJP, Goddard S, Gesteira TCV (1996) Feeding activity patterns of the southern brown shrimp Penaeus subtilis under semi-intensive culture in NE Brazil. Aquaculture 144:371–386Google Scholar
Nunes AJP, Sá MVC, Carvalho EA, Neto HS (2006) Growth performance of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared under time- and rate-restriction feeding regimes in a controlled culture system. Aquaculture 253:646–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunes AJP, Sá MVC, Sabry-Neto H (2011) Growth performance of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed on practical diets with increasing levels of the Antarctic krill meal, Euphausia superba, reared in clear-versus green-water culture tanks. Aquac Nutr 17:511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nunes AJP, Sá MVC, Browdy CL, Vazquez-Anon M (2014) Practical supplementation of shrimp and fish feeds with crystalline amino acids. Aquaculture 431:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Obaldo LG, Divakaran S, Tacon AG (2002) Method for determining the physical stability of shrimp feeds in water. Aquac Res 33:369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pontes CS, Arruda MF, Menezes AAL et al (2006) Daily activity pattern of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) juveniles under laboratory conditions. Aquac Res 37:1001–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pontes CS, Lima PP, Arruda MF (2008) Feeding responses of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) fed at different frequencies under laboratory conditions. Aquac Res 39:1416–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pontes CS, Marques LC, Andreatta ER, Moura RST, Henry-Silva GG (2015) Feeding frequency and growth performance of juvenile pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis). Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 67:1415–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reymond H, Lagardère JP (1990) Feeding rhythms and food of Penaeus japonicus bate (Crustacea, Penaeidae) in salt water ponds: role of halophilic entomofauna. Aquaculture 81:125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robertson L, Lawrence AL, Castille FL (1993) Effect of feeding frequency and feeding time on growth of Penaeus vannamei (Boone). Aquac Res 24:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sá MVC, Sabry-Neto H, Cordeiro-Júnior E, Nunes AJP (2013) Dietary concentration of marine oil affects replacement of fish meal by soy protein concentrate in practical diets for the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquac Nutr 19:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sedgwick RW (1979) Effect of ration size and feeding frequency on the growth and food conversion of juvenile Penaeus merguiensis de man. Aquaculture 16:279–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith DM, Burford MA, Tabrett SJ, Irvin SJ, Ward L (2002) The effect of feeding frequency on water quality and growth of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Aquaculture 207:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2008) Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture 285:146–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Velasco M, Addison LL, Castille FL (1999) Effect of variations in daily feeding frequency and ration size on growth of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone), in zero-water exchange culture tanks. Aquaculture 179:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhou QC, Zeng WP, Wang HL, Wang T, Wang YL, Xie FJ (2012) Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 364-365:252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar