Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 323–335 | Cite as

Microalgae diet for juveniles of Spondylus limbatus

  • A. Marquez
  • C. LodeirosEmail author
  • A. Loor
  • J. Revilla
  • F. Da Costa
  • S. Sonnenholzner


The effects of mono- and bi-microalgal diets on shell length, organic tissue, and survival of Spondylus limbatus juveniles were tested in two separate feeding experiments. The first examined nine single species of microalgae: Chaetoceros gracilis, C. muelleri, Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-ISO), Tetraselmis chuii, T. maculata, Pavlova lutheri, Dunaliella salina, Rhodomonas sp., and Nannochloropsis sp. An extra treatment maintaining the juveniles in a long line culture was at Ayangue Bay, Province of Santa Elena, Ecuador. Single diets of P. lutheri, C. muelleri, and C. gracilis showed the best combined growth of survival performance in juveniles, and were therefore selected for the bi-algal diet experiment design with the inclusion of I. galbana T-ISO due to its recommended use in bivalve culture. A second experiment consisted in selecting the best three microalgae species that resulted from the first experiment and combined each other in binary treatments at 1:1 ratio. All bi-algal diets in combination with P. lutheri showed good result in growth (shell and biomass), yield, and survival. However, single P. lutheri mono-algal diet showed equal or better performance index than the other bi-algal combined diets, demonstrating the pertinence in using this microalga as food for S. limbatus juveniles.


Bivalve culture Mollusks Algal diets Spondylids Eastern Tropical Pacific Juvenile diets 



We are grateful to J. Alió for reviewing and providing helpful comments. This work was performed as part of the Research Project “Desarrollo de protocolo de domesticación para el uso sostenible de nuevas especies marinas para consumo de alimento y repoblación de bancos naturales” financed by the Secretaría Técnica de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENESCYT), and the Research Project “Prestación de Servicios de Investigación Profesional y Exámenes de Laboratorio, Spondylus y Pepino de Mar” financed by the Undersecretary of Aquaculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Aquaculture and Fisheries, Ecuador (MAGAP).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas, CENAIMEscuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral, ESPOLGuayaquilEcuador
  2. 2.Grupo de Investigación en Biología y Cultivo de Moluscos, Escuela de Acuicultura y Pesquerías, Facultad de Ciencias VeterinariasUniversidad Técnica de ManabíBahía de CaráquezEcuador
  3. 3.Universidad de OrienteInstituto Oceanográfico de VenezuelaCumanáVenezuela
  4. 4.Oceano Fresco Lda, Edifício Mira CenterMiraPortugal

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