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Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 261–277 | Cite as

The effects of a conventional feed versus a fish-free feed and biofloc management on the nutritional and human sensory characteristics of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

  • Andrew J. RayEmail author
  • John W. Leffler
  • Craig L. Browdy
Article
  • 72 Downloads

Abstract

Biofloc-based systems use little water and may recycle nutrients through the water column microbial community; fish-free diets may be more ecologically and financially sustainable than traditional feeds. A 12-week study examined the effects of biofloc (solids) management and a fish-free diet on shrimp quality. Four treatments were created; two used a conventional feed (including fishmeal and fish oil), one with solids management (CF-S) and one without (CF), and two treatments used a fish-free feed, one with solids management (FF-S) and one without (FF); each treatment was randomly assigned to four 3600-L tanks. The FF and FF-S shrimp had significantly lower lipid concentration and more manganese. Potassium was higher in CF-S shrimp versus CF; phosphorus was lowest in FF-S shrimp, and FF shrimp had the highest zinc levels. The CF shrimp had significantly higher omega-3s than FF shrimp, although omega-3 levels in FF shrimp were higher than the feed. This, coupled with higher omega-3 levels in the biofloc than the feed, may indicate that shrimp obtained some fatty acids from the biofloc material. The CF-S and FF-S shrimp had significantly greater sweet aromatic aroma, and the FF and FF-S shrimp had significantly higher first bite moisture release, mastication moisture release, and mastication fibrous/stringy texture. These results should be considered to optimize product quality of biofloc-raised shrimp fed fish-free diets.

Keywords

Shrimp Biofloc Fatty acids Fish-free diets Sensory qualities Product quality 

Abbreviations

AA

Arachidonic acid

AHA

American Heart Association

ALA

Alpha linolenic acid

ANOVA

analysis of variance

APHA

American Public Health Association

CF

Conventional feed

CF-S

Conventional feed with solids management

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DO

Dissolved oxygen

DPAn-3

Docosapentaenoic acid n-3

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

ESS

Environmental Sciences Section, Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene

FA

Fatty acid

FF

Fish-free feed

FCR

Feed conversion ratio

FF-S

Fish-free feed with solids management

LA

Linoleic acid

LnA

Linolenic acid

n-3

Omega-3

n-6

Omega-6

NCSU

North Carolina State University

NTU

Nephelometric turbidity units

ppm

Parts per million

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride

RPM

Revolutions per minute

SAS

Statistical Analysis Software

SEM

Standard error of the mean

TAN

Total ammonia nitrogen

TSS

Total suspended solids

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

VSS

Volatile suspended solids

YSI

Yellow Springs Incorporated

Notes

Acknowledgements

Mention of a trademark or proprietary product is in no way an endorsement of that product or a suggestion of its superiority over other products. This is contribution number 784 from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Marine Resources Research Institute. Thank you to Maggie Holbrook Broadwater, MaryAnne Drake, Kathy Moore, Gloria Seaborn, and the staff of the Waddell Mariculture Center, Bluffton, South Carolina, USA.

Funding information

This research was supported by grants from the USDA Integrated Organic Program and the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of AquacultureKentucky State University Land Grant ProgramFrankfortUSA
  2. 2.South Carolina Department of Natural ResourcesMarine Resources Research InstituteCharlestonUSA

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