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Aquaculture International

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 167–193 | Cite as

A first study on the effect of dietary soya levels and crystalline isoflavones on growth, gonad development and gonad histology of farmed abalone, Haliotis midae

  • Yu Wu
  • Horst KaiserEmail author
  • Clifford L. W. Jones
Article

Abstract

Soya in formulated diets for abalone, Haliotis midae, can improve somatic growth. However, it may also influence gonad development, thereby limiting the potential benefit of including soya in feed. This is the first study to determine both the effect of dietary soya level on growth and reproduction of abalone and the role of crystalline isoflavones (ISO) at concentrations occurring in soya diets. Abalone (40–50 g individual−1) were fed seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Three diets contained 5, 10 or 19% soya, while an additional three diets included graded levels of ISO. A fishmeal (FM)-only diet was included. The inclusion of ISO did not influence gonad development or abalone growth while soya inclusion level had an effect on both reproductive development and abalone growth. After 180 days, male abalone fed FM with soya inclusion had the highest whole body mass (69.0 ± 2.48 g abalone−1), meat mass index (60.5 ± 1.88%), visceral mass index (13.0 ± 0.27%) and gonad bulk index (42.7 ± 9.82 g abalone−1). Weight loss was observed in all treatments probably due to spawning events. The frequency distribution of the predominant oocyte stage, stage 7 was influenced by soya concentration. The increase in the frequency of stage 7 oocytes in abalone fed FM with soya did not reduce the number of oocytes (45.0 ± 3.01 oocytes mm−2), while the number of oocytes (o) in abalone fed the FM-only diets decreased with increasing abundance of stage 7 oocytes, possibly due to an increase in oocyte size.

Keywords

Abalone EDC Oogenesis Molluscs Phytoestrogens 

Abbreviations

AT

Total area in a photograph (mm2)

°C

Degree Celsius

c

Concentration

C

Chorion

cm

Centimetres

CS

Cytoplasmic stalk

Cy

Cytoplasm

DG

Digestive gland

EDC

Endocrine-disrupting compound

EGV

Effective gonad volume (mm3)

ET

Total number of oocytes in a photograph

F

F-statistic

Fc

Dry feed consumed (g)

FCR

Feed conversion ratio

FD

Frequency distribution (%)

FM

Fish meal

g

Gramme

GBI

Gonad bulk index

GEp

Gonad epithelium

h

Hour

HSD

Honest significant difference

ISO

Crystalline isoflavones

JC

Jelly coat

L

Litre

Lca

Length of the conical appendage (mm)

Lf

Average final length (mm)

LG

Length gain (mm abalone−1 month−1)

log

Logarithm

Lt

Average initial length (mm)

Mf

Final wet whole mass (g)

mg

Milligramme

MI

Meat mass index (%)

Min

Minute

MJ

Megajoule

mL

Millilitre

mm

Millimetre

Mm

Meat mass (g)

MSR

Multiple forward stepwise regression analysis

N

Nucleus

Ne

Necrotic oocyte

ng

Nanogram

nm

Nanometre

No

Number of oocytes (mm−2)

Nu

Nucleolus

O2

Oxygen

Oc

Early maturity stage oocyte

Og

Oogonia

OS

Developmental stage (oocyte)

P

α-Error probability

PVC

Polyvinylchloride

RM-ANOVA

Repeated measures analysis of variance

s

Sex of abalone

S

Soya

St1

Stage 1 oocytes

St2

Stage 2 oocytes

St3

Stage 3 oocytes

St4

Stage 4 oocytes

St5

Stage 5 oocytes

St6

Stage 6 oocytes

St7

Stage 7 oocytes

t

Time

TAN

Total ammonia nitrogen

Vm

Visceral wet mass (g abalone−1)

WMG

Wet mass gained (g)

WG

Weight gain (g abalone−1 month−1)

Wm

Wet whole mass (g abalone−1)

Ws

Shucked mass (g abalone−1)

μg

Microlitre

μm

Micrometre

Notes

Acknowledgements

The financial support of the National Research Foundation’s Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme (THRIP), Marifeed (Pty) Ltd., HIK Abalone Farm (Pty) Ltd., Aqunion (Pty) Ltd. and Rhodes University Research Committee are gratefully acknowledged. We would also like to thank the management and staff at the Marifeed (Pty) Ltd. factory and at Whale Rock Farm for their help and contribution to this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

National and institutional guidelines for the care and use of the animals used in this study were followed by the authors.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries ScienceRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa

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