Aquaculture International

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 1681–1697 | Cite as

Supplementary feeding with thermally treated cereals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) pond farming and its effects on water quality, nutrient budget and zooplankton and zoobenthos assemblages

  • David Hlaváč
  • Maria Anton-Pardo
  • Jan Másílko
  • Pavel Hartman
  • Ján Regenda
  • Pavel Vejsada
  • Marek Baxa
  • Libor Pechar
  • Olga Valentová
  • Lucie Všetičková
  • Bořek Drozd
  • Zdeněk Adámek
Carp pond aquaculture, product processing and quality


To test the influence of supplementary feeding with thermally treated cereals on nutrient budget and environmental and biotic variables, three different treatments were applied in four experimental ponds: two with thermally treated cereals, one with raw cereal and a control with no supplementary feeding. Water parameters, zooplankton and zoobenthos were analysed from May to October over two consecutive years (2012 and 2013). In addition, nitrogen and phosphorus budgets were calculated as the difference between input (feed, stocked fish) and output (harvested fish). The results showed that type of supplementary feed had no influence on water quality, aside from water transparency. Ponds with added thermally treated cereal had significantly (P < 0.05) lower turbidity and suspended solids (and increased Secchi depth) compared with control. While no significant differences were observed in zooplankton assemblages between the experimental ponds and the control, macrozoobenthos density and biomass were considerably lower in the control pond. High seasonal fluctuations resulted in significant differences in density in 2012 only. The use of thermally treated cereal led to improved carp growth and nutrient budget, with an increase in carp yield and nutrient removal per hectare of pond surface. This result is a win–win situation with 10 % lower feed conversion ratio, increased profits and lower environmental impact.


Common carp Nutrient budget Supplementary feeding Thermally treated cereals 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Hlaváč
    • 1
  • Maria Anton-Pardo
    • 1
  • Jan Másílko
    • 1
  • Pavel Hartman
    • 1
  • Ján Regenda
    • 1
  • Pavel Vejsada
    • 1
  • Marek Baxa
    • 2
    • 3
  • Libor Pechar
    • 2
    • 3
  • Olga Valentová
    • 4
  • Lucie Všetičková
    • 5
  • Bořek Drozd
    • 1
  • Zdeněk Adámek
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Centre of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Institute of Aquaculture and Protection of WatersUniversity of South Bohemia in České BudějoviceČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of Applied EcologyUniversity of South BohemiaČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  3. 3.ENKI, o.p.s.TřeboňCzech Republic
  4. 4.Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Research Institute of Fish Culture and HydrobiologyUniversity of South Bohemia in České BudějoviceVodňanyCzech Republic
  5. 5.Department of Fish Ecology, Institute of Vertebrate BiologyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicBrnoCzech Republic

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