Aquaculture International

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 199–209 | Cite as

Mortality and ostreid herpesvirus 1 infection in the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Gulf of La Spezia, Italy

  • Laura Serracca
  • Irene Rossini
  • Roberta Battistini
  • Carlo Ercolini
Article

Abstract

Between May 2011 and February 2014, 205 samples of Crassostrea gigas, farmed on the northwest coast of Italy, were collected and analyzed for OsHV-1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, V. alginolyticus, V. aestuarianus, bacteria belonging to V. splendidus clade, E. coli, Salmonella spp., environmental parameters and algae. Statistical analysis was carried out to correlate all the data of the environmental parameters, algae and Vibrio with OsHV-1 in the presence and absence of die-off. Of the samples tested, 46.8 % (96/205) were positive for the detection of OsHV-1 DNA, 0.97 % (2/205) of the oysters were positive for V. harveyi DNA detection and 8.8 % (18/205) were positive for V. aestuarianus. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between the presence of V. aestuarianus, OsHV-1 and a die-off occurred in November 2013. Sequencing analysis of the PCR products revealed that the genotype of OsHV-1 is highly related to the variant µVar.

Keywords

Vibrio Ostreid herpesvirus 1 Crassostrea gigas 

References

  1. Burge C, Judah LR, Conquest LL, Griffin FJ, Cheney DP, Suhrbier A, Vadopalas B, Olin PG, Renault T, Friedman CS (2007) Summer seed mortality of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg grown in Tomales Bay, California, USA: the influence of oyster stock, planting time, pathogens, and environmental stressors. J Shellfish Res 26:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Davison AJ, Trus BL, Cheng N, Steven AC, Watson MS, Cunningham C, Le Deuff RM, Renault T (2005) A novel class of herpesvirus with bivalve hosts. J Gen Virol 86:41–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davison AJ, Eberle R, ehlers B, Hayaward GS, Mc Geoch DJ, Minson AC, Pellett PE, Roizman B, Studdert MJ, Thiry E (2009) The order Herpesvirales. Arch Virol 154:171–177Google Scholar
  4. De Decker S, Saulnier D (2011) Vibriosis induced by experimental cohabitation in Crassostrea gigas: evidence of early infection and down-expression of immune-related genes. Fish Shellfish Immunol 30:691–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Domeneghetti S, Varotto L, Civettini M, Rosani U, Stauder M, Pretto T, Pezzati E, Arcangeli G, Turolla E, Pallavicini A, Venier P (2014) Mortality occurrence and pathogen detection in Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus galloprovincialis close-growing in shallow waters (Goro lagoon, Italy). Fish Shellfish Immunol 41:37–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dundon WG, Arzul I, Omnes E, Robert M, Magnabosco C, Zambon M, Gennari L, Toffan A, Terregino C, Capua I, Arcangeli G (2011) Detection of Type 1 Ostreid Herpes variant (OsHV-1 µvar) with no associated mortality in French-origin Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas farmed in Italy. Aquaculture 314:49–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW) (2010) Scientific opinion on the increased mortality events in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. EFSA J 8(11):1894Google Scholar
  8. Final Report OsHV-1 µvar, International Workshop. Cairns, Queensland Australia; 9–10 Luglio 2011Google Scholar
  9. Friedman CS, Estes RM, Stokes NA, Burge CA, Hargove JS, Barber BJ, Elston RA, Burreson EM, Reece KS (2005) Herpes virus in juvenile Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from Tomales bay, California, coincides with summer mortality episodes. Dis Aquat Org 63:33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. García- Lagunas N, Romero-Geraldo R, Hernàndez-Saavedra NY (2013) Genomics study of the exposure effect of Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralyzing toxin producer, on Crassostrea gigas’ defense system and detoxification genes. PLoS One 8:e72323PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garcia C, Thébault A, Dégremont L, Arzul I, Miossec L, Robert M, Chollet B, François C, Joly JP, Ferrand S, Kerdudou N, Renault T (2011) OsHV-1 detection and relationship with C. gigas spat mortality in France between 1998 and 2006. Vet Res 42:73–84PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haldar S, Neogi SB, Kogure K, Chatterjee S, Chowdhury N, Hinenoya A, Asakura M, Yamasaki S (2010) Development of a haemolysin gene-based multiplex PCR for simultaneous of Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parhameolyticus. Lett Appl Micobiol 50:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ISO 6579: 2002 Microbiology of food and animal feed stuffs Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp.Google Scholar
  14. ISO/TS 16649-3:2005 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs—horizontal method for the enumeration of beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli—part 3: most probable number technique using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-glucuronideGoogle Scholar
  15. ISO/TS 21872-1:2007 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs—Horizontal method for the detection of potentially enteropathogenic Vibrio spp.—part 1: detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholera Google Scholar
  16. Jenkins C, Hick P, Gabor M, Spiers Z, Fell SA, Gu X et al (2013) Identification and characterisation of an ostreid herpesvirus-1 microvariant (OsHV-1 µvar) in Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oysters) in Australia. Dis Aquat Org 105:109–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaysner CA, DePaola A Jr (2004) Vibrio. In: Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapt 9, Food and Drug Administration, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
  18. Le Deuff RM, Renault T (1999) Purification and partial genome characterization of a herpes-like virus infecting the Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas. J Gen Virol 80:1317–1322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee SK, Wang HZ, Law SH, Wu RS, Kong RY (2002) Analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (IGSs) of marine Vibriosis for species specific signature DNA sequences. Mar Pollut Bull 44:412–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lynch SA, Carlson J, Reilly AO, Cotter E, Culloty SC (2012) A previously undescribed ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) genotype detected in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Ireland. Parasitology 139:1526–1532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nicolas JL, Comps M, Cochennec N (1992) Herpes-like virus infecting Pacific oyster larvae, Crassostrea gigas. Bull Eur Ass Fish Pathol 12:11–13Google Scholar
  22. Peeler EJ, Reese RA, Cheslett DL, Geoghegan F, Power A, Trush MA (2012) Investigation of mortality in Pacific oysters associated with ostreid herpesvirus-1 µVar in the Republic of Ireland in 2009. Prev Vet Med 105:136–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Renault T, Le Deuff RM, Cochennec N, Maffart P (1994) Herpesviruses associated with mortalities among Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in France—Comparative study. Revue Méd Vét 145:735–742Google Scholar
  24. Renault T, Moreau P, Faury N, Pepin JF, Segarra A, Webb S (2012) Analysis of clinical ostreid herpesvirus 1 (Malacoherpesviridae) specimens by sequencing amplified fragments from three virus genome areas. J Virol 86:5942–5947PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Renault T, Bouquet AL, Maurice JT, Lupo C, Blachierb P (2014) Ostreid herpesvirus 1 Infection among Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Spat: relevance of Water Temperature to Virus Replication and Circulation Prior to the Onset of Mortality. Appl Environ Microbiol 80:5419–5426PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saulnier D, De Decker S, Haffner P (2009) Real-time PCR assay for rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio aestuarianus in oyster and seawater: a useful tool for epidemiological studies. J Microbiol Methods 77:191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Saulnier D, De Decker S, Haffner P, Cobret L, Robert M, Garcia C (2010) A large-scale epimediological study to identify bacteria pathogenic to Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and correlation between viurlence and metalloprotease-like activity. Microbiol Ecol 59:787–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sauvage C, Pépin JF, Lapègue S, Boudry P, Renault T (2009) Ostreid herpes virus 1 403 infection in families of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, during a summer mortality 404 outbreak: difference in viral DNA detection and quantification using real-time PCR. Virus Res 142:181–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schikorski D, Faury N, Pepin JF, Saulnier D, Tourbiez D, Renault T (2011) Experimental ostreid herpesvirus 1 infection of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: kinetics of virus DNA detection by p-PCR in seawater and in oyster samples. Virus Res 155:28–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Segarra A, Pepin JF, Arzul I, Morga B, Faury N, Renault T (2010) Detection and description of a particular ostreid herpesvirus 1 genotype associated with massive mortality outbreaks of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Virus Res 153:92–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Serracca
    • 1
  • Irene Rossini
    • 1
  • Roberta Battistini
    • 1
  • Carlo Ercolini
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Microbiology Laboratory of the Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piemonte Liguria and Valle d’AostaLa SpeziaItaly

Personalised recommendations