Aquaculture International

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 1227–1238 | Cite as

Comparative performance of two rainbow trout strains fed fermented soybean meal

  • Michael E. BarnesEmail author
  • Michael L. Brown
  • Regg Neiger


The comparative response of the Shasta and McConaughy strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to diets containing fermented soybean meal was evaluated during a 94-d feeding trial. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets contained 0, 35, or 50 % fermented soybean meal and 40, 15, or 0 % fish meal, respectively. In each of the diets, rearing performance was significantly better in the Shasta strain, with an approximate 30 % improvement in percent gain and 20 % improvement in feed conversion ratio compared with the McConaughy strain. The relative response of both strains to the different diets was similar. The 50 % fermented soybean meal diet produced a weight gain of 172 % in the McConaughy strain, which was significantly less than the 219 and 250 % gain exhibited by the control and 35 % fermented soybean meal diets. Similarly, weight gain in the Shasta strain was 220 % in the 50 % fermented soybean meal diet compared to 330 and 375 % in the control and 35 % fermented soybean meal diets, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was also significantly higher in both strains in the 50 % fermented soybean meal diet. Distal intestine morphology was only significantly different in the Shasta strain rainbow trout fed the 50 % fermented soybean meal diet. The hepatosomatic index was significantly greater in the McConaughy strain, but was not influenced by diet, while the viscerosomatic index was not significantly affected by either strain or diet. Based on these results, diets containing up to 35 % fermented soybean meal are acceptable for either strain.


Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Shasta McConaughy Fermented soybean meal 



The authors thank the South Dakota Soybean Research and Promotion Council, South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Natural Resource Management at South Dakota State University, and the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks for funding, facilities, equipment, and supplies. Furthermore, the technical assistance of R. Ray, A. Davis, E. Krebs, P. Nero, M. Wipf, S. Zimmerman, L. Walker, and N. Barnes is greatly appreciated. Nutraferma Inc. of North Sioux City, South Dakota, provided the fermented soybean meal for this trial.


  1. Adams SM, Brown AM, Goede RW (1993) A quantitative health assessment index for rapid evaluation of fish condition in the field. Trans Am Fish Soc 122:63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adelizi PD, Rosati RR, Warner K, Wu YV, Muench TR, White MR, Brown PB (1998) Evaluation of fish-meal free diets for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquac Nutr 4:255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) (2000) Approved methods of the american association of cereal chemists, 10th edn. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. PaulGoogle Scholar
  4. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (2009) Official methods of for analysis. Gaithersburg, Maryland. Cited 14 Mar 2012
  5. Barnes ME, Durben DJ (2010) An evaluation of DVAqua®, a fully fermented yeast culture, during long–term hatchery rearing of McConaughy strain rainbow trout. Aquac Nutr 16:299–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes ME, Fletcher B, Durben DJ, Reeves SG (2006a) Dietary yeast supplementation during initial rearing of three salmonid species. Proc SD Acad Sci 85:129–140Google Scholar
  7. Barnes ME, Durben DJ, Reeves SG, Sanders R (2006b) Dietary yeast culture supplementation improves initial rearing of McConaughy strain rainbow trout. Aquac Nutr 12:388–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes ME, Fletcher B, Durben DJ (2007) Effects of a proprietary yeast supplement during rearing of two strains of juvenile rainbow trout and juvenile lake trout. Proc SD Acad Sci 86:89–98Google Scholar
  9. Barnes ME, Simpson G, Durben DJ (2009) Post-stocking harvest of catchable-sized rainbow trout enhanced by dietary supplementation with a fully fermented commercial yeast culture during hatchery rearing. N Am J Fish Manag 29:1287–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes ME, Brown ML, Rosentrater KA, Sewell JR (2012) An initial investigation replacing fish meal with a commercial fermented soybean meal product in the diets of juvenile rainbow trout. Op J Anim Sci 2:234–243Google Scholar
  11. Barnes ME, Brown ML, Rosentrater KA, Sewell JR (2013) Preliminary evaluation of rainbow trout diets containing PepSoyGen, a fermented soybean meal product, and additional amino acids. Op Fish Sci J 6:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barnes ME, Brown ML, Bruce T, Sindelar S, Neiger R (2014) Rainbow trout rearing performance, intestinal morphology, and immune response after long-term feeding of high levels of fermented soybean meal. N Am J Aquac 76:333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barrows FT, Gaylord TG, Sealey WM, Haas MJ, Stroup RL (2008a) Processing soybean meal for biodiesel production: effect of a new processing method on growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 283:141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrows FT, Gaylord TG, Sealey WM, Porter L, Smith CE (2008b) The effect of vitamin premix in extruded plant-based and fish meal based diets on growth efficiency and health of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 283:148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Barton BA, Morgan JD, Vijayan MM (2002) Physiological and condition-related indicators of environmental stress in fish. In: Adams SM (ed) Biological indicators of aquatic ecosystem stress. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 111–148Google Scholar
  16. Burrells C, Williams PD, Southgate PJ, Crampton VO (1999) Immunological, physiological and pathological responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to increasing dietary concentrations of soybean proteins. Vet Immunol Immunopath 72:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Buttle LG, Burrells AC, Good JE, Williams PD, Southgate PJ, Burrells C (2001) The binding of soybean agglutinin (SBA) to the intestinal epithelium of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fed high levels of soybean meal. Vet Immunol Immunopath 80:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng ZJ, Hardy RW, Usry JL (2003a) Effects of lysine supplementation in plant-protein diets on performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients. Aquaculture 215:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng ZJ, Hardy RW, Blair M (2003b) Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxyl analogue in soybean meal and distiller’s dried grain-based diets on the performance and nutrient retention of rainbow trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)]. Aquac Res 34:1303–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Colburn HR, Walker AB, Breton TS, Stilwell JM, Sidor IF, Gannam AL, Berlinsky DL (2012) Partial replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal and soy protein concentrate in diets of Atlantic cod. N Am J Aquac 74:330–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davis JL, Wilhite JW, Simpson G, Barnes ME, Bertrand KN, Willis DW (2013) Contributions of stocked and naturally reproduced rainbow trout in Deerfield reservoir system. Prairie Nat 45:46–56Google Scholar
  22. Dupont-Nivet M, Médale G, Leonard J, Le Guillou S, Tiquet F, Quillet E, Geurden I (2009) Evidence of genotype-diet interactions in the response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) clones to a diet with or without fishmeal at early growth. Aquaculture 295:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goede RW, Barton BA (1990) Organismic indices and an autopsy-based assessment as indicators of health and condition in fish. In: Adam SM (ed) Biological indicators of stress in fish. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 93–108Google Scholar
  24. Hardy RW (2010) Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal. Aquac Res 41:770–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hong JJ, Lee CH, Kim SW (2004) Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals. J Med Food 7:430–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Knudsen D, Uran P, Arnous A, Kroppe W, Frøkiaer H (2007) Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon. J Agric Food Chem 55:2261–2267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Knudsen D, Jutfelt F, Sundh H, Sundell K, Koppe W, Frøkiaer H (2008) Dietary soya saponins increase gut permeability and play a key role in the onset of soyabean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Br J Nutr 100:120–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Krogdahl Å, Bakke-McKellep AM, Roed KH, Baeverfjord G (2000) Feeding Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. soybean products: effects on disease resistance (furunculosis), and lysozyme and IgM levels in the intestinal mucosa. Aquac Nutr 6:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kuehl RO (2000) Design of experiments: statistical principles of research design and analysis, 2nd edn. Brookes/Cole, Pacific GroveGoogle Scholar
  30. National Research Council (2011) Nutrient requirements of fish. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  31. Needham PR, Behnke RJ (1962) The origin of hatchery rainbow trout. Prog Fish-Cult 24:156–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Palti YJ, Silverstein T, Wieman H, Phillips JG, Barrows FT, Parsons JE (2006) Evaluation of family growth response to fishmeal and gluten-based diets in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 255:548–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Panserat S, Hortopan GA, Plagnes-Juan E, Kolditz C, Lansard M, Skiba-Cassy S, Esquerré D, Geurden I, Médale F, Kauskik S, Corraze G (2009) Differential gene expression after total replacement of dietary fish meal and fish oil by plant products in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver. Aquaculture 294:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pierce LR, Palti Y, Silverstein JT, Barrows FT, Hallerman EM, Parsons JE (2008) Family growth response to fishmeal and plant-based diets shows genotype x diet interaction in rainbow trout. Aquaculture 278:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Refstie S, Korsoen OJ, Storebakken T, Baeverfjord G, Lein I, Roem AJ (2000) Differing nutritional responses to dietary soybean meal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 190:49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith RR, Kincaid HL, Regenstein JM, Rumsey GL (1988) Growth, carcass composition, and taste of rainbow trout of different strains fed diets containing primarily plant or animal protein. Aquaculture 70:309–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Storebakken T, Refstie S, Ruyter B (2000) Soy products as fat and protein sources in fish feeds for intensive aquaculture. In: Drackley JK (ed) Soy in animal nutrition. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Illinois, pp 127–170Google Scholar
  38. Strange RJ (1996) Field examination of fishes. In: Murphy BR, Willis DW (eds) Fisheries techniques, 2nd edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 433–446Google Scholar
  39. Takeuchi T, Watanabe T (1982) Effects of various polyunsaturated fatty acids on growth and fatty acid concentrations of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Bull Jap Soc Sci Fish 48:1745–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Teng D, Meiyun G, Yang Y, Liu B, Tian Z, Wang J (2012) Bio-modification of soybean meal with Bacillus subtilis or Aspergillus oryzae. Biocat Agric Biotech 1:32–38Google Scholar
  41. Vincent ER (1987) Effects of stocking catchable-size hatchery rainbow trout on two wild trout species in the Madison river and O’Dell Creek, Montana. N Am J Fish Manag 7:91–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamamoto T, Iwashita Y, Matsunari H, Sugita T, Furuita H, Akimoto A, Okamatsu K, Suzuki N (2010) Influence of fermentation conditions for soybean meal in a non-fish meal diet on the growth performance and physiological condition of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 309:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Barnes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael L. Brown
    • 2
  • Regg Neiger
    • 3
  1. 1.South Dakota Department of GameFish and ParksSpearfishUSA
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife and Fisheries SciencesSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary and Biomedical SciencesSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA

Personalised recommendations