Improved reproductive performance of tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes, by mysid shrimp fed singly or in combination with other natural food
The brood size, parturition frequency and parturition occurrence of tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes were evaluated for 180 days using single and combined diets comprising Artemia salina, mysid shrimp Mesopodopsis orientalis and frozen Acetes sp. The daily food intake of seahorse was determined with the following treatments: T1-Artemia; T2-mysid; T3-Acetes; T4-Artemia + mysid; T5-Artemia + Acetes; T6-mysid + Acetes; and T7-Artemia + mysid + Acetes. Percent body weight (% BW) of daily food intake until satiation was similar in Artemia, mysid and Artemia + Acetes (20–22 %), but significantly higher in mysid + Acetes, Artemia + mysid, and Artemia + mysid + Acetes with 25, 31 and 33 %, respectively (p < 0.05). Single diet of frozen Acetes was least consumed at 6 %. Thus, mysid was the preferred food of adult seahorses as a single or combined diet with Artemia and Acetes. Diet treatments with single mysid or combined with Artemia and Acetes have significantly higher brood size (223–292) than the other treatments (107–152) (p < 0.05). Significantly longer parturition interval (60 days) was observed in seahorses fed with Artemia than those fed with mysid or in combination with other natural food (13–26 days), but not significantly different to seahorses fed with Acetes and Artemia + Acetes (42–45 days). Parturition occurrence in seahorse fed with Artemia, Acetes and Artemia + Acetes (2.7–4.3) were the lowest, while Artemia + mysid and Artemia + mysid + Acetes have significantly higher occurrence followed by mysids + Acetes and mysid only (p < 0.05). Thus, the reproductive performance was improved when seahorses were fed with single or combined foods including mysid. Total lipid was positively correlated to brood size and parturition occurrence, while DHA:EPA ratio was negatively correlated to brood size and parturition occurrence.
KeywordsBrood size Endangered species Parturition frequency Seed production Stock enhancement
This study was funded by the Government of Japan Trust Fund (GOJ-TF) for Stock Enhancement Program entitled “Resource Enhancement of Internationally Threatened and Over-Exploited Species in Southeast Asia through Stock Release” (Budget code 5029-TRD-Br0710). This study was also supported in part by Asia-Africa Science Platform (AASP) Program(2011–2013 FY) and RONPAKU (Dissertation PhD) Program (2013–2015 FY, DOST-11322) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). The authors wish to thank Charlemagne Recente, Rod Salvador Tibubos and Arnel Abaricio in SEAFDEC/AQD for their assistance in the maintenance of seahorses. We also thank Rose Margaret Albacete for the proximate analysis of natural food and Jilla Alcalde Tornalejo for the fatty acid analysis of seahorse.
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