Aquaculture International

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 289–298 | Cite as

Morphological and physiological evaluation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) fed extruded compound feeds containing different fat levels

  • Vesna Poleksić
  • Marko Stanković
  • Zoran Marković
  • Renata Relić
  • Nada Lakić
  • Zorka Dulić
  • Božidar Rašković
Article

Abstract

The study was carried out to examine morphological and physiological effects of different levels of fat in compound extruded feed for carp. A 90 days experiment was performed in tanks with water flow 0.34 L min−1, stocked each with 29 specimens of carp, average weight 15.4 ± 4.2 g. The fish was fed 3 diets containing 38 % protein and 8, 12 or 16 % of fat (feed L8, L12, and L16, respectively). Body weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio, feed efficiency ratio, condition factor, liver and intestine histology and morphometry and some blood biochemical parameters were analysed. At the end of the experiment, a difference was established between the fish fed L8 feed compared to carp fed L12 and L16 feed for all growth parameters. For several other parameters, nuclear area of hepatocytes, nuclear/cytoplasm ratio, enterocytes height and intestinal folds’ length, a difference between carp fed feed L8 compared to feed L16 was found. The histological analysis revealed that normal structure of the liver and intestine prevailed, but changes were observed regardless of the diet type. In the hepatopancreas, more prominent changes were found around pancreatic tissue—particularly, increased number and size of adipocytes. Although blood biochemical parameters were within normal values, a difference between L8 and L16 diet-fed carp was found for plasma levels of triglycerides and total proteins. According to the results obtained in this study, the best results were achieved using a feed with 8 % fat.

Keywords

Blood biochemistry Common carp Extruded feed Growth Histology Lipid levels 

Abbreviations

BWG

Body weight gain

SGR

Specific growth rate

FCR

Food conversion ratio

FER

Feed efficiency ratio

CF

Condition factor

CEFAH

Center for Fishery and Applied Hydrobiology

DO

Dissolved oxygen

HE

Haematoxylin and eosin

N/C

Nucleus/cytoplasm ratio

DM

Dry matter

NFE

Nitrogen-free extract

P/E

Protein/energy ratio

References

  1. Aas TS, Terjesen BF, Sorensen M, Oehme M, Sigholt T, Hillestad M, Holm J, Asgars T (2009) Nutritional value of feeds with different physical qualities. Report, Nofima marine, p 21. doi: 10.1007/s10499-011-9483-3
  2. Abbass FE (2007) Effect of dietary oil sources and levels on growth, feed utilization and whole—body chemical composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings. J Fish Aquat Sci 2:140–148Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Qureshi TA, Singh AB, Manohar S, Borana K, Chalko SR (2012) Effect of dietary protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents on the growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition of Cyprinus carpio communis fingerlings. IJFAS 4:30–40Google Scholar
  4. Ashley PJ (2007) Fish welfare: current issues in aquaculture. Appl Anim Behav Sci 104:199–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caballero MJ, López-Calero G, Socorro J, Roo FJ, Izquierdo MS, Férnandez AJ (1999) Combined effect of lipid level and fish meal quality on liver histology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 179:277–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caballero MJ, Izquierdo MS, Kjorsvik E, Fernandez AJ, Rosenlund G (2004) Histological alterations in the liver of sea bream, Sparus aurata L., caused by short- or long-term feeding with vegetable oils. Recovery of normal morphology after feeding fish oil as the sole lipid source. J Fish Dis 27:531–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dobšíková R, Blahová J, Modrá H, Škorič M, Svobodová Z (2011) The effect of acute exposure to herbicide Gardoprim Plus Gold 500 SC on haematological and biochemical indicators and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Acta Vet Brno 80:359–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis SC, Reigh RC (1991) Effects of dietary lipid and carbohydrate levels on growth and body composition of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquac 97:383–394Google Scholar
  9. Epler P, Ostaszewska T, Sokołowska-Mikołajczyk M, Nowak M (2009) Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas. AACL Bioflux 2:285–292Google Scholar
  10. Figueiredo-Silva A, Rocha E, Dias J, Silva P, Rema P, Gomes E, Valente LMP (2005) Partial replacement of fish oil by soybean oil on lipid distribution and liver histology in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. Aquacult Nutr 11:147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grisdale-Helland B, Shearer KD, Gatlin DM, Helland SJ (2008) Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, protein digestibility, feed utilization and body composition of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture 283:156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huda J (2009) Cereals efficiency in market carp farming [in Czech]. Ph.D. Thesis, University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice, pp 199Google Scholar
  13. Humason GL (1979) Animal tissue techniques, 4th edn. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnsen F, Hillestad M, Austreng E (1993) High energy diets for Atlantic salmon. Effects on pollution. Fish Nutrition in Practice. Proceedings of the international symposium on fish nutrition and feeding. Biarritz, France, pp 391–401Google Scholar
  15. Kestemont P, Vandeloise E, Melard C, Fontaine P, Brown PB (2001) Growth and nutritional status of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis fed graded levels of dietary lipids with or without added ethoxyquin. Aquaculture 203:85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krouwer JS, Tholen DW, Garber CC, Goldschmidt HMJ, Kroll MH, Linnet K, Meier K, Robinowitz M, Kennedy JW (2002) Method comparison and bias estimation using patient samples; approved guideline, second edn. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, USAGoogle Scholar
  17. Manjappa K, Keshavanath P, Gangadhara B (2002) Growth performance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio fed varying lipid levels through low protein diet, with a note on carcass composition and digestive enzyme activity. Acta Ichthyol Piscat 32:145–155Google Scholar
  18. Marković Z (2010) Šaran: gajenje u ribnjacima i kaveznim sistemima. (Carp: culture in ponds and cage systems). Zoran Marković, Belgrade (handbook in Serbian), ISBN 978-86-909769-2-8Google Scholar
  19. Marković Z, Poleksić V, Lakić N, Živić I, Dulić Z, Stanković M, Spasić M, Rašković B, Sørensen M (2012) Evaluation of growth and histology of liver and intestine in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) fed extruded diets with or without fish meal. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 12:301–308Google Scholar
  20. Ostaszewska T, Dabrowski K, Palacios ME, Olejniczak M, Wieczorek M (2005) Growth and morphological changes in the digestive tract of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) due to casein replacement with soybean proteins. Aquaculture 245:273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Patriche T, Patriche N, Tenciu M (2009) Cyprinids total blood proteins determination. Lucrări ştiinţifice Zootehnie şi Biotehnologii 42:95–101Google Scholar
  22. Pei Z, Xie S, Lei W, Zhu X, Yang Y (2004) Comparative study on the effect of dietary lipid level on growth and feed utilization for gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Gunther). Aquacult Nutr 10:209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peres H, Oliva-Teles A (1999) Influence of temperature on protein utilization in juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 170:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rašković BS, Stanković MB, Marković ZZ, Poleksić VD (2011) Histological methods in the assessment of different feed effects on liver and intestine of fish. J Agric Sci 56:87–100Google Scholar
  25. Roberts RJ (1989) Fish pathology. Baillière Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Ross LG, Ross B (2008) Anesthetic and sedative techniques for aquatic animals. Blackwell Publishing, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Simpson MJ, Walker P, Helm A, Leah R (2002) Histopathological observations on liver, kidney and gonad of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) taken from the Mersey estuary. Mar Environ Res 54:543–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Skalli A, Hidalgo MC, Abellan E, Arizcun M, Cardenete G (2004) Effects of the dietary protein/lipid ratio on growth and nutrient utilization in common dentex (Dentex dentex L.) at different growth stages. Aquac 235:1–11Google Scholar
  29. Spisni E, Tugnoli M, Ponticelli A, Mordenti T, Tomasi V (1998) Hepatic steatosis in artificially fed marine teleosts. J Fish Dis 21:177–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Strüssmann CA, Takashima F (1990) Hepatocyte nuclear size and nutritional condition of larval pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Cuvier et Valenciennes). J Fish Biol 36:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Svobodová Z, Vykusová B (1991) Haematological examination of fish. In: Diagnostics, prevention and therapy of fish diseases and intoxications. Manual. FAO. p. 270 http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC160E/AC160E00.htm. Cited 15 Oct 2012
  32. Takashima F, Hibiya T (1995) An atlas of fish histology. Normal and pathological features. Gustav Fisher Verlag, KodanshaGoogle Scholar
  33. Van den Thillart G, Vianen G, Zaagsma J (2002) Adrenergic regulation of lipid mobilization in fishes; a possible role in hypoxia survival. Fish Physiol Biochem 27:189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vanraaij MTM, Vandenthillart G, Vianen GJ, Pit DSS, Balm PHM, Steffens B (1996) Substrate mobilization and hormonal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, L.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) during deep hypoxia and subsequent recovery. J Comp Physiol B 166:443–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Watanabe T, Takeuchi T, Ogino C (1979) Studies on the sparing effect of lipids on dietary protein in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Proceedings of the World symposium on finfish nutrition and fishfeed technology. Hamburg, Germany. pp 113–125Google Scholar
  36. Wolf JC, Wolfe MJ (2005) A brief overview of nonneoplastic hepatic toxicity in fish. Toxicol Pathol 33:75–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yilmaz E, Sahinb A, Durub M, Akyurt I (2005) The effect of varying dietary energy on growth and feeding behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, under experimental conditions. Appl Anim Behav Sci 92:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vesna Poleksić
    • 1
  • Marko Stanković
    • 1
  • Zoran Marković
    • 1
  • Renata Relić
    • 1
  • Nada Lakić
    • 1
  • Zorka Dulić
    • 1
  • Božidar Rašković
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations