Aquaculture International

, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 741–757 | Cite as

Lack of essential fatty acids in live feed during larval and post-larval rearing: effect on the performance of juvenile Solea senegalensis

  • Maria Luísa Dâmaso-RodriguesEmail author
  • Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
  • Laura Ribeiro
  • Joana Coutinho
  • Narcisa M. Bandarra
  • Paulo J. Gavaia
  • Luís Narciso
  • Sofia Morais


Despite the large progress obtained in recent years, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) production of high quality juveniles is still a bottleneck. This paper examines the effect of larval and post-larval lipid nutrition on juvenile performance and quality. Four dietary treatments were tested: A—enriched Artemia spp. (EA); B—non-enriched Artemia spp. (NEA); C—EA during the pelagic larval period and NEA after larval settlement; D—50% EA and 50% NEA. Juvenile fatty acid profile at 60 days after hatching (DAH) clearly reflected the larval and post-larval diet composition. Feeding sole larvae on NEA (poor in lipids and essential fatty acids-EFA) had a negative effect, reducing growth (total length and dry weight) after 30 DAH and decreasing digestive enzyme activity at the end of the rearing period (60 DAH). However, relatively good performance compared to the EFA-richest treatment (A) was obtained when larvae were fed 50% EA and 50% NEA (D) or even EA only during the pelagic larval period followed by NEA after larval settlement (C). Malpigmentation was not affected by the dietary regimes and its incidence was very low. However, skeletal deformities were prevalent, particularly in the caudal complex, independently of diet. The results confirm that Senegalese sole appear to have lower larval EFA requirements than most cultured marine species and potentially even lower requirements during the post-larval stage. The importance of studying the impact of early nutrition on later juvenile stages was clearly highlighted in this study.


Digestive enzymes Larval rearing Lipid nutrition Pigmentation Skeletal deformities Solea senegalensis 



Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)


Days after hatching


Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)


Dry weight


Enriched Artemia


Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3)


Fatty acid


FA methyl esters


Highly unsaturated fatty acids


Linoleic acid (18:2n-6)


Linolenic acid (18:3n-3)


Non-enriched Artemia


Oleic acid (18:1n-9)


Polyunsaturated fatty acid


Total length



This work was partially funded by projects “PROMAR/SP5.P117/03” (INTERREGIII A) and “Tecnologias de Produção Aquícola” (22-05-01-FBR-00014; program MARE). L. Ribeiro and S. Morais were supported by “Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia”, Portugal (grants SFRH/BPD/7148/2001 and SFRH/BPD/21766/2005, respectively).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Luísa Dâmaso-Rodrigues
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pedro Pousão-Ferreira
    • 1
  • Laura Ribeiro
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joana Coutinho
    • 3
  • Narcisa M. Bandarra
    • 3
  • Paulo J. Gavaia
    • 2
  • Luís Narciso
    • 4
  • Sofia Morais
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Aquaculture Research Centre, IPIMAR/INRBOlhãoPortugal
  2. 2.CCMARUniversidade do AlgarveFaroPortugal
  3. 3.IPIMAR/UVPPALisbonPortugal
  4. 4.Centro de Oceanografia, Laboratório Marítimo da GuiaFCULCascaisPortugal
  5. 5.Institute of AquacultureUniversity of StirlingStirlingScotland, UK

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