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Aquatic Geochemistry

, Volume 17, Issue 4–5, pp 583–601 | Cite as

Sulfide Oxidation across Diffuse Flow Zones of Hydrothermal Vents

  • Amy Gartman
  • Mustafa Yücel
  • Andrew S. Madison
  • David W. Chu
  • Shufen Ma
  • Christopher P. Janzen
  • Erin L. Becker
  • Roxanne A. Beinart
  • Peter R. Girguis
  • George W. LutherIII
Original Paper

Abstract

The sulfide (H2S/HS) that is emitted from hydrothermal vents begins to oxidize abiotically with oxygen upon contact with ambient bottom water, but the reaction kinetics are slow. Here, using in situ voltammetry, we report detection of the intermediate sulfur oxidation products polysulfides [\( {\text{S}}_{\text{x}}^{2 - } \)] and thiosulfate [\( {\text{S}}_{ 2} {\text{O}}_{ 3}^{ 2- } \)], along with contextual data on sulfide, oxygen, and temperature. At Lau Basin in 2006, thiosulfate was identified in less than one percent of approximately 10,500 scans and no polysulfides were detected. Only five percent of 11,000 voltammetric scans taken at four vent sites at Lau Basin in May 2009 show either thiosulfate or polysulfides. These in situ data indicate that abiotic sulfide oxidation does not readily occur as H2S contacts oxic bottom waters. Calculated abiotic potential sulfide oxidation rates are <10−3 μM/min and are consistent with slow oxidation and the observed lack of sulfur oxidation intermediates. It is known that the thermodynamics for the first electron transfer step for sulfide and oxygen during sulfide oxidation in these systems are unfavorable, and that the kinetics for two electron transfers are not rapid. Here, we suggest that different metal catalyzed and/or biotic reaction pathways can readily produce sulfur oxidation intermediates. Via shipboard high-pressure incubation experiments, we show that snails with chemosynthetic endosymbionts do release polysulfides and may be responsible for our field observations of polysulfides.

Keywords

Sulfide oxidation Kinetics Hydrothermal vents Diffuse flow Lau Basin In situ chemistry 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper is submitted in the memory and honor of John W. Morse who made significant contributions to geochemistry and oceanography including the founding of Aquatic Geochemistry (Mackenzie et al. 2010). This work was supported by grants from the US National Science Foundation (OCE-0732439 to GWL, OCE-0732369 to PRG, OCE-0732333 to Charles R. Fisher), via the Ridge 2000 program. None of this work would have been possible without the expertise and patience of the ROV JASON II and the R/V Melville crews in 2006, and the ROV JASON II, and the R/V Thomas G. Thompson crews in 2009. We thank Arunima Sen for her assistance with the substrate data. Special thanks to Dr. Charles R. Fisher for his skills as chief scientist and for facilitating data collection.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amy Gartman
    • 1
  • Mustafa Yücel
    • 1
    • 7
  • Andrew S. Madison
    • 1
  • David W. Chu
    • 2
  • Shufen Ma
    • 1
    • 6
  • Christopher P. Janzen
    • 3
  • Erin L. Becker
    • 4
  • Roxanne A. Beinart
    • 5
  • Peter R. Girguis
    • 5
  • George W. LutherIII
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Marine Science and Policy, College of Earth, Ocean and EnvironmentUniversity of DelawareLewesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Marine Science and Policy, College of Earth, Ocean and EnvironmentUniversity of DelawareLewesUSA
  3. 3.Department of ChemistrySusquehanna UniversitySelinsgroveUSA
  4. 4.Biology DepartmentPenn State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  5. 5.Department of Organismic & Evolutionary BiologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  6. 6.Department of Earth and Planetary ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  7. 7.Laboratory of Benthic Ecogeochemistry (LECOB), Observatoire Oceanologique de BanyulsUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie—Paris 6Banyuls-sur-merFrance

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