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Apoptosis

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 475–477 | Cite as

Defining the morphologic features and products of cell disassembly during apoptosis

  • Rochelle Tixeira
  • Sarah Caruso
  • Stephanie Paone
  • Amy A. Baxter
  • Georgia K. Atkin-Smith
  • Mark D. Hulett
  • Ivan K. H. Poon
Letter to the Editor

To the Editor,

The disassembly of apoptotic cells into smaller fragments has been a focus of recent research, and proposed to play a key role in processes such as cell clearance, immune responses and intercellular communication [1]. However, the lack of consistency in the field in describing morphologic features/products of apoptotic cell disassembly has hindered the progress in determining the role of this process in homeostasis and disease settings.

Apoptotic cell disassembly was first described by Kerr et al. [2] as condensation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic content, followed by the fragmentation of the apoptotic cell into smaller membrane-bound vesicles. More recently, apoptotic cell disassembly was found to be a highly regulated process involving a number of distinct morphologic steps. Briefly, apoptotic morphology begins with cell rounding, followed by the formation of circular bulges at the plasma membrane. At later stages of apoptosis, the generation of thin membrane...

Keywords

Cell Rounding Apoptotic Body Extracellular Vesicle Disassembly Process Apoptotic Morphology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Atkin-Smith GK, Poon IK (2016) Disassembly of the Dying: Mechanisms and Functions. Trends Cell Biol. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2016.08.011 PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Kerr JF, Wyllie AH, Currie AR (1972) Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br J Cancer 26:239–257CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
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    Rubartelli A, Poggi A, Zocchi MR (1997) The selective engulfment of apoptotic bodies by dendritic cells is mediated by the alpha(v)beta3 integrin and requires intracellular and extracellular calcium. Eur J Immunol 27:1893–1900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Liang YY et al (2015) Serum-dependent processing of late apoptotic cells and their immunogenicity. Apoptosis 20:1444–1456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Willingham MC (1999) Cytochemical methods for the detection of apoptosis. J Histochem Cytochem 47:1101–1110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Jiang L et al (2016) Monitoring the progression of cell death and the disassembly of dying cells by flow cytometry. Nat Protoc 11:655–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rochelle Tixeira
    • 1
  • Sarah Caruso
    • 1
  • Stephanie Paone
    • 1
  • Amy A. Baxter
    • 1
  • Georgia K. Atkin-Smith
    • 1
  • Mark D. Hulett
    • 1
  • Ivan K. H. Poon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular ScienceLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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