The dual role of autophagy under hypoxia-involvement of interaction between autophagy and apoptosis
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Hypoxia is one of severe cellular stress and it is well known to be associated with a worse outcome since a lack of oxygen accelerates the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis caused by hypoxia. Generally autophagy blocks the induction of apoptosis and inhibits the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury. However, in special cases, autophagy or autophagy-relevant proteins may help to induce apoptosis, which could aggravate cell damage under hypoxia condition. In addition, the activation of apoptosis-related proteins–caspase can also degrade autophagy-related proteins, such as Atg3, Atg4, Beclin1 protein, inhibiting autophagy. Although the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis has been known for rather complex for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This short review discusses and summarizes the dual role of autophagy and the interaction and molecular regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and apoptosis under hypoxia.
KeywordsHypoxia Autophagy Apoptosis Caspase Cell damage
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81370183), Tianjin Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 14JCYBJC27800) and National Clinical Key Subject Construction Project of NHFPC Fund.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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