, Volume 15, Issue 9, pp 1098–1113 | Cite as

Inefficient clearance of dying cells in patients with SLE: anti-dsDNA autoantibodies, MFG-E8, HMGB-1 and other players

  • Kristin Kruse
  • Christina Janko
  • Vilma Urbonaviciute
  • Claudia T. Mierke
  • Thomas H. Winkler
  • Reinhard E. Voll
  • Georg Schett
  • Luis E. MuñozEmail author
  • Martin Herrmann
Clearance of dead cells: mechanisms, immune responses and implication in the development of diseases


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex disease resulting from inflammatory responses of the immune system against several autoantigens. Inflammation is conditioned by the continuous presence of autoantibodies and leaked autoantigens, e.g. from not properly cleared dying and dead cells. Various soluble molecules and biophysical properties of the surface of apoptotic cells play significant roles in the appropriate recognition and further processing of dying and dead cells. We exemplarily discuss how Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8), biophysical membrane alterations, High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and anti-nuclear autoantibodies may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Up to date knowledge about these key elements may provide new insights that lead to the development of new treatment strategies of the disease.


Clearance MFG-E8 Biophysical features Plasma membrane Phosphatidylserine HMGB-1 CRP ANA 



This work was supported by the “Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft” (HE 4490/3-1 and SFB 643-project B5), by the Training Grant SFB GK 643, by the Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF) (N2) at the University Hospital of the Friedrich-Alexander University, by an intramural grant (ELAN-fonds M3- of the Medical Faculty of the Friedrich-Alexander University and by the K. und R. Wucherpfennigstiftung.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristin Kruse
    • 1
  • Christina Janko
    • 1
  • Vilma Urbonaviciute
    • 2
  • Claudia T. Mierke
    • 4
  • Thomas H. Winkler
    • 3
  • Reinhard E. Voll
    • 2
  • Georg Schett
    • 1
  • Luis E. Muñoz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martin Herrmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department for Internal Medicine 3, University Hospital ErlangenFriedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.IZKF Research Group N2, Nikolaus-Fiebiger-Center for Molecular Medicine, University Hospital ErlangenUniversity of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Hematopoiesis Unit, Department of Biology, Nikolaus-Fiebiger-Center for Molecular MedicineFriedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  4. 4.Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Biophysics GroupFriedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

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