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Apoptosis

, 14:1435 | Cite as

Diabetes mellitus and apoptosis: inflammatory cells

  • Aidan Ryan
  • Madeline Murphy
  • Catherine Godson
  • Fionnuala B. Hickey
Diabetes and Apoptosis

Abstract

Since the early observation that similarities between thyroiditis and insulitis existed, the important role played by inflammation in the development of diabetes has been appreciated. More recently, experiments have shown that inflammation also plays a prominent role in the development of target organ damage arising as complications, with both elements of the innate and the adaptive immune system being involved, and that cytokines contributing to local tissue damage may arise from both infiltrating and resident cells. This review will discuss the experimental evidence that shows that inflammatory cell-mediated apoptosis contributes to target organ damage, from beta cell destruction to both micro- and macro-vascular disease complications, and also how alterations in leukocyte turnover affects immune function.

Keywords

Diabetes Microvascular complications Macrovascular complications Apoptosis Inflammation 

Abbreviations

ACAT

Acyl Co-A: cholesterol acyltransferase

AGE

Advanced glycation end products

AIM

Apoptosis inhibitor expressed by macrophages

APC

Antigen presenting cells

APOε

Apolipoprotein E

BMP

Bone morphogenetic protein

CB2

Canabinoid 2

CCL-2

Chemokine ligand 2

CCR

Chemokine receptor

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

Cox-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CTGF

Connective tissue growth factor

CTL

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DC

Dendritic cells

DN

Diabetic nephropathy

DR

Diabetic retinopathy

EMT

Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

ESRD

End-stage renal failure

FasL

Fas ligand

FC

Free cholesterol

FLIP

FLICE-like inhibitory protein

FoxO

Forkhead transcription factor

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

IAP

Inhibitor of apoptosis

IHG-1

Induced in high glucose-1

IL

Interleukin

IL-1Ra

IL-1 receptor antagonist

iNOS

Inducible NO synthase

IRAK

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

LOX-1

LDL receptor-1

Lp-PLA2

Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

M-CSF

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

MCP-1

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1

MIF

Migration inhibitory factor

NO

Nitric oxide

NOD

Nonobese diabetic

ox-LDL

Oxidised low-density lipoprotein

PARP

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase

PLC

Phospholipase C

PPAR

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

RAAS

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

RAGE

Receptor for advanced glycation end products

RIP

Rat insulin promoter

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SR-A

Macrophage scavenger receptor A

STZ

Streptozotocin

T1DM

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

TCR

T cell receptor

TIF

Tubulointerstitial fibrosis

TIMP

Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNF

Tumour necrosis factor

TRAIL

TNF Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand

Treg

Regulatory T cells

UPR

Unfolded protein response

UPS

Ubiquitin-proteasome system

VCAM-1

Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

VLA-4

Very late-acting antigen-4

Notes

Acknowledgments

Work in the authors laboratory is funded by Science Foundation Ireland, The Health Research Board Ireland and the EU FP6 EICOSANOX Consortium (LSHM-CT-2004-005033). Aidan Ryan is the recipient of a Molecular Medicine Ireland Clinical Research Fellowship

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aidan Ryan
    • 1
  • Madeline Murphy
    • 1
  • Catherine Godson
    • 1
  • Fionnuala B. Hickey
    • 1
  1. 1.UCD Diabetes Research Centre, UCD Conway Institute, School of Medicine and Medical ScienceUniversity College DublinDublinIreland

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