Control of apoptosis in influenza virus-infected cells by up-regulation of Akt and p53 signaling
PI3k-Akt and p53 pathways are known to play anti- and pro-apoptotic roles in cell death, respectively. Whether these pathways are recruited in influenza virus infection in highly productive monkey (CV-1) and canine (MDCK) kidney cells was studied here. Phosphorylation of Akt (Akt-pho) was found to occur only early after infection (5–9 h.p.i). Nuclear accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 (p53-pho), and expression of its natural target p21/waf showed low constitutive levels at this period, whereas all three parameters were markedly elevated at the late apoptotic stage (17–20 h.p.i.). Up-regulation of Akt-pho and p53-pho was not induced by UV-inactivated virus suggesting that it required virus replication. Also, mRNAs of p53 and its natural antagonist mdm2 were not increased throughout infection indicating that p53-pho was up-regulated by posttranslational mechanisms. However, p53 activation did not seem to play a leading role in influenza-induced cell death: (i) infection of CV1 and MDCK cells with recombinant NS1-deficient virus provoked accelerated apoptotic death characterized by the lack of p53 activation; (ii) mixed apoptosis-necrosis death developed in influenza-infected human bronchial H1299 cells carrying a tetracycline-regulated p53 gene did not depend on p53 gene activation by tetracycline. Virus-induced apoptosis and signaling of Akt and p53 developed in IFN-deficient VERO cells with similar kinetics as in IFN-competent CV1-infected cells indicating that these processes were endocrine IFN-independent. Apoptosis in influenza-infected CV-1 and MDCK cells was Akt-dependent and was accelerated by Ly294002, a specific inhibitor of PI3k-Akt signaling, and down-regulated by the viral protein NS1, an inducer of host Akt. The obtained data suggest that influenza virus (i) initiates anti-apoptotic PI3k-Akt signaling at early and middle phases of infection to protect cells from fast apoptotic death and (ii) provokes both p53-dependent and alternative p53-independent apoptotic and/or necrotic (in some host systems) cell death at the late stage of infection.
KeywordsInfluenza virus Apoptosis Akt p53
The authors thank Dr. Peter Chumakov from the Engelhard Institute of Molecular Biology (Moscow) and Prof. Matthias Dobbelstein, Dr. Michael Schuemann, and Dr. Francoise Debierre-Grockiego from the Institute of Virology, Philipps University of Marburg, for useful discussions and help with the experiments. The authors acknowledge Dr. Irina Vorobjeva for assistance with the purification of DNA plasmids. This work was supported by SFB 593 program and Grant 04-48290 of Russian Foundation for Basic research.
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