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Flow, Turbulence and Combustion

, Volume 102, Issue 2, pp 279–298 | Cite as

Experimental Investigation of Ignition Stability in a Cyclic Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber Featuring Relevant Conditions for Air-Breathing Propulsion

  • Quentin MichalskiEmail author
  • Bastien Boust
  • Marc Bellenoue
Article

Abstract

Pressure-gain combustion concepts are developed around the world as solutions to reach the ambitious target of the ultra-efficient aircraft road map for 2050 that requires a 20% reduction of specific fuel consumption of the engine. This reduction can be obtained by increasing the thermodynamic efficiency. Several patterned designs apply the Humphrey deflagration-based constant-volume combustion (CVC) to parallel piston-less combustors. Recently, a proof of concept constant-volume combustor was operated in representative aircraft combustor conditions. This study evidenced reliable operating regimes, but also critical design issues related to some of the most challenging combustion fields: ignition stability, flame propagation in non-perfectly-premixed conditions and trapped residual gases, as well as cycle hysteresis. A lab-scale facility (CV2) was designed to study and further improve our understanding of such CVC phenomena. The facility features the cyclic operation of constant-volume combustion, independently of a specific technology of intake and exhaust systems, at representative aircraft combustor conditions over more than 10 cycles. The results presented in the paper concern the investigation of CVC stability with a variation of the spark-ignition phasing, in direct injection of gaseous propane. The cyclic stable and unstable operating conditions have been characterized successfully by means of time-resolved PIV, pressure evolution measurements, as well as chemiluminescence visualization. A strong correlation between ignition probability and the cumulative probability density function of the local velocity is evidenced.

Keywords

Constant-volume combustion Cyclic combustion Direct injection Ignition 

Nomenclature

CVCC

Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

CAPA

Chair on Alternative Combustion mode for Air-Breathing Propulsion

Dst

Propane-air mixture stoichiometric dilution in mass

ER

Equivalence Ratio

LES

Large Eddy Simulation

M

Molar mass

nx, ny

Number of vectors along the two dimensions of the velocity field

OER

Overall Equivalence Ratio

Q

Specific kinetic energy content of the 2D velocity field

q

Specific kinetic energy content of the 2D turbulent fluctuation field

t0–10

Time from the ignition to 10% of the maximum combustion pressure

t10–90

Time from 10% to 90% of the maximum combustion pressure

TR-PIV

Time-Resolved Particle-Image Velocimetry

u

Velocity vector field

u1, u2

Velocity components

u

Turbulent fluctuation vector field

u1, u2

Turbulent fluctuation components

uLF

Low spatial frequency components of the velocity fluctuation field

uHF

High spatial frequency components of the velocity fluctuation field

V

Tank volume

Vlim

Statistical limit velocity

λ

Aspect ratio of the combustion chamber

t × f

Time normalized by the cycle frequency

γa, γf

Ratio of heat capacity

∆p

Pressure variation measured in a tank

τav

Time scale for the temporal averaging of the velocity fields

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is part of the CAPA Chair, a research program on Alternative Combustion Mode for Air-breathing Propulsion supported by SAFRAN Tech, MBDA France and ANR (National Research Agency).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Quentin MICHALSKI has received grants research from the CAPA Chair (a joint research program between SAFRAN, MBDA and ANR). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut Pprime, CNRS, ISAE-ENSMAUniversité de PoitiersFuturoscope ChasseneuilFrance

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