Flow, Turbulence and Combustion

, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 697–724

Implementation and Evaluation of an Embedded LES-RANS Solver


DOI: 10.1007/s10494-016-9787-5

Cite this article as:
Anupindi, K. & Sandberg, R.D. Flow Turbulence Combust (2017) 98: 697. doi:10.1007/s10494-016-9787-5


In the current work, we present the development and application of an embedded large-eddy simulation (LES) - Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solver. The novelty of the present work lies in fully embedding the LES region inside a global RANS region through an explicit coupling at the arbitrary mesh interfaces, exchanging flow and turbulence quantities. In particular, a digital filter method (DFM) extracting mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress profiles from the RANS region is used to provide meaningful turbulent fluctuations to the LES region. The framework is developed in the open-source computational fluid dynamics software OpenFOAM. The embedding approach is developed and validated by simulating a spatially developing turbulent channel flow. Thereafter, flow over a surface mounted spanwise-periodic vertical fence is simulated to demonstrate the importance of the DFM and the effect of the location of the RANS-LES interface. Mean and second-order statistics are compared with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from the literature. Results indicate that feeding synthetic turbulence at the LES interface is essential to achieve good agreement for the mean flow quantities. However, in order to obtain a good match for the Reynolds stresses, the LES interface needs to be placed sufficiently far upstream, which in the present case was six spoiler heights before the fence. Further, a realistic spoiler configuration with finite-width in the spanwise direction and inclined at 30 degrees was simulated using the embedding approach. As opposed to the vertical fence case this is a genuinely (statistically) three-dimensional case and a very good match with mean and second-order statistics was obtained with the experimental data. Finally, in order to test the present solver for high sub-sonic speed flows the flow over an open cavity was simulated. A good match with reference data is obtained for mean and turbulence profile comparisons. Tones in the pressure spectra were predicted reasonably well and an overall sound pressure level with a maximum deviation of 2.6 dB was obtained with the present solver when compared with the experimental data.


Embedded large-eddy simulation Synthetic turbulence generation Channel flow Vertical fence Inclined spoiler Open cavity 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
Innovate UK
  • 101288
Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
  • EP/L000261/1

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and the EnvironmentUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MelbourneVictoriaAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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