Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 80, Issue 1, pp 127–136 | Cite as

Evaluating the effectiveness of an integrated tick management approach on multiple pathogen infection in Ixodes scapularis questing nymphs and larvae parasitizing white-footed mice

  • Eliza A. H. Little
  • Scott C. Williams
  • Kirby C. StaffordIII
  • Megan A. Linske
  • Goudarz MolaeiEmail author


We investigated the effectiveness of integrated tick management (ITM) approaches in reducing the burden of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes scapularis. We found a 52% reduction in encountering a questing nymph in the Metarhizium anisopliae (Met52) and fipronil rodent bait box treatment combination as well as a 51% reduction in the combined white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) removal, Met52, and fipronil rodent bait box treatment compared to the control treatment. The Met52 and fipronil rodent bait box treatment combination reduced the encounter potential with a questing nymph infected with any pathogen by 53%. Compared to the control treatment, the odds of collecting a parasitizing I. scapularis infected with any pathogen from a white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) was reduced by 90% in the combined deer removal, Met52, and fipronil rodent bait box treatment and by 93% in the Met52 and fipronil rodent bait box treatment combination. Our study highlights the utility of these ITM measures in reducing both the abundance of juvenile I. scapularis and infection with the aforementioned pathogens.

Key words:

Integrated tick management Ixodes scapularis Borrelia burgdorferi Deer reduction Fipronil bait box Metarhizium anisopliae 



We are grateful to Redding Town Staff and elected officials, specifically Natalie Ketchum, Julia Pemberton, and Doug Hartline for their support and assistance as well as all the collaborating homeowners in Town for allowing us access to their properties. We thank Michael Short, Heidi Stuber, Elizabeth Alves, Laura Hayes, Saryn Kunajukr, and Alex Diaz of The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station as well as seasonal research assistants Mark Morris, Stephanie Shea, Heather Whiles, Adam Misiorski, Kelsey Schwenk, Jarrod Bridge, Pronoma Srivastava, and Magalí Bazzano for their technical assistance. Met52 was kindly made available by Novozymes Biological, Inc. This research was funded by a Cooperative Agreement between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (Award # 5 U01 CK000182-01). The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EntomologyThe Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Center for Vector Biology & Zoonotic Diseases and Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-borne DiseasesThe Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of Forestry and HorticultureThe Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationNew HavenUSA
  4. 4.Department of Environmental SciencesThe Connecticut Agricultural Experiment StationNew HavenUSA
  5. 5.Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA

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