Comparison of in-vitro bioassays for evaluation of the response of different stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato to calcium alginate encapsulated pheromone beads

  • S. GowrishankarEmail author
  • Bhaskaran Ravi Latha
  • C. Sreekumar
  • V. Leela


Tick sex pheromone (SP), assembly pheromone (AP) and their combination (SP + AP) were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads. In vitro bioassays, namely Petri dish and olfactometer assays, were employed to estimate the level of attraction of the various stages of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, namely unfed and engorged (fed) larvae, nymphs, females, and males to the different pheromones. The study revealed that only the Petri dish assay was suitable to evaluate the response of larval stages whereas the olfactometer bioassay could also be used for evaluating the response of all other stages. Attraction to pheromone encapsulated calcium alginate beads of all tick stage was higher in the Petri dish assay than in the olfactometer assay.


Ticks Petri dish bioassay Olfactometer bioassay 



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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gowrishankar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bhaskaran Ravi Latha
    • 1
  • C. Sreekumar
    • 2
  • V. Leela
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Parasitology, Madras Veterinary CollegeTamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife Science, Madras Veterinary CollegeTamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Physiology, Madras Veterinary CollegeTamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityChennaiIndia

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