The response of three species of phytoseiid mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in the laboratory and the field
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The Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida, is a major pest in tea fields [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] in Japan. However, recently, there have been some instances where acaricides are no longer applied as a result of the low occurrence of T. kanzawai in tea fields in Japan. In the period of 2015–2017, surveys of predatory mites in the study tea field detected Amblyseius eharai Amitai and Swirski, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Euseius sojaensis (Ehara), Amblyseius obtuserellus Wainstein and Begljarov, and Typhlodromus vulgaris Ehara in tea fields, but not Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha), indicating that a major change in the composition of the phytoseiid mite population had occurred. In laboratory studies, we confirmed the ability to avoid synthetic pyrethroid insecticides of the major beneficial mites in tea fields, A. eharai and P. persimilis, but not of E. sojaensis, a predatory mite whose population declined heavily after pesticide application. Attempts are made in this study to associate the decrease in T. kanzawai frequency in Japan with changes in pesticide used, method of spraying, and composition of the phytoseiid mite population. By continuing the method of pesticide spraying (‘partial surface’), which leaves refugia in the leaf layer with sub-lethal dosages of pesticide, phytoseiid mites are aided to evade pesticides, resulting in maintenance of the composition of the phytoseiid mite populations in terms of diversity and abundance. Maintaining the diversity and abundance of Phytoseiidae may have contributed to the stabilization of the T. kanzawai population at low densities in Japanese tea fields.
KeywordsPhytoseiid mite Behavioral avoidance Method of spraying Natural enemies Temporal variation Pyrethroid pesticide
We thank Dr. H. Kishimoto (Division of Apple Research, Institute of Fruit Tree and Tea Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, NARO), Dr. S. Toyoshima (Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center, NARO), and Dr. S. Yano (Laboratory of Ecological Information, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University) for their support. We thank Mr. S. Nakakihara and other staff of the Kagoshima Prefectural Institute for Agricultural Development and students of the Faculty of Agriculture Kagoshima University for their help with the research. Our special thanks go to Dr. A. Fujiie, Mr. S. Sato, Ms. M. Uchino, and staff of the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Research Council for their continuous encouragement throughout the study. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their useful and constructive comments that helped to improve our manuscript.
This research was funded by the Science and Technology Research Promotion Program for Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries and Food Industry (27019C).
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