Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp 303–317 | Cite as

In vitro assessment of the acaricidal activity of Piper longum, Piper nigrum, and Zingiber officinale extracts against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks

  • Nirbhay K. SinghEmail author
  • S. P. S. Saini
  • Harkirat Singh
  • Jyoti
  • S. K. Sharma
  • S. S. Rath


Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a major constraint for the sustainable cattle industry in the tropical and subtropical regions including the Indian subcontinent. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used acaricides leads to an attempt to screen plant extracts and their combinations for their possible acaricidal activity to develop an eco-friendly tick control alternative. An alcoholic and various aqueous extracts of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale and their combinations were evaluated for acaricidal activity against the three-host ixodid tick, Hyalomma anatolicum by larval immersion test using 14–21 days old unfed larvae. The efficacy was assessed by measuring larval mortality (%) and the lethal concentrations for 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) with their 95% confidence limits (CL) values were estimated by applying regression equation analysis to the probit transformed data of mortality. A concentration-dependent mortality response was recorded in all extracts prepared from seeds of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations. The highest acaricidal property was exhibited by the alcoholic extract of P. longum seeds with the minimum LC50 and LC95 (95% CL) values of 0.071% (0.07–0.072) and 0.135% (0.13–0.14), respectively, followed by alcoholic combinations. Interestingly, no acaricidal activity was recorded in extracts prepared from the rhizome of Z. officinale. The results indicated that the ethanolic extracts of P. longum and P. nigrum and their combinations can be used effectively for tick control in an integrated format.


Acaricidal activity Hyalomma anatolicum Piper longum Piper nigrum Zingiber officinale 



Authors are thankful to the Director of Research, GADVASU, Ludhiana for providing facilities to carry out the research work.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nirbhay K. Singh
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • S. P. S. Saini
    • 3
  • Harkirat Singh
    • 1
  • Jyoti
    • 1
  • S. K. Sharma
    • 3
  • S. S. Rath
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary ScienceGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Cattle Fever Tick Research LaboratoryEdinburgUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary ScienceGuru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityLudhianaIndia

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