Deltamethrin resistance in field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Jammu and Kashmir, India
Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from six districts of Jammu and Kashmir (India) was carried out using the adult immersion test. The regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of concentration of drug were utilised for the determination of slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50), 95 % (LC95) and resistance factor (RF). On the basis of the data generated on mortality, egg mass weight, reproductive index and percentage inhibition of oviposition, the resistance level was categorised as I, II, III and IV. Out of these six districts, resistance to deltamethrin at level I was detected in one district (RF = 1.9), at level II in two districts (RF = 7.08–10.07) and at level IV in three districts (RF = 96.08–288.72). The data generated on deltamethrin resistance status will help in formulating tick control strategy in the region.
KeywordsDeltamethrin Resistance Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
The financial support was provided by Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) number AUJ/DR/14-15/F-420/7888-7903.
- Brito LG, Barbieri FS, Rodrigo B, Rocha MC, Oliveira S, Elisana S (2011) Evaluation of the efficacy of acaricides used to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in dairy herds raised in the Brazilian South-western Amazon. Vet Med Int 2011:806093Google Scholar
- FAO (2004) Resistance management and integrated parasite control in ruminants- Guidelines, Module I- Ticks: acaricide resistance: diagnosis, management and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organisation. Animal Production and Health Division, Rome, pp 25–77Google Scholar
- Finney DJ (1962) Probit analysis—a statistical treatment of the response curve. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Godara R, Katoch M, Katoch R, Yadav Anish, Praveen S, Vij Bhavna, Varun Khajuria, Singh G, Singh NK (2014a) In vitro acaricidal activity of Atropa belladonna and its components, scopolamine and atropine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Sci World J 2014, Article ID 713170. doi: 10.1155/2014/713170
- Minjauw B, McLeod A (2003) Tick-borne diseases and poverty. The impact of ticks and tick-borne diseases on the livelihood of small scale and marginal livestock owners in India and eastern and southern Africa. Research report, DFID Animal Health Programme, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK, pp 59–60Google Scholar
- Ram H, Yadav CL, Banerjee PS, Kumar V (2004) Tick associated mortality in crossbred cattle calves. Indian Vet J 81:1203–1205Google Scholar
- Shaw RD (1966) Culture of an organophosphorus resistant strain of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) and assessment of its resistance spectrum. Bull Entomol Res 56:398–405Google Scholar
- Soulsby EJL (1982) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th edn. Bailliere Tindal, London, pp 464–465Google Scholar
- Varun Khajuria, Godara R, Anish Yadav, Katoch R (2014) Deltamethrin resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus of Jammu region. Indian Vet J 91:21–24Google Scholar