Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 67, Issue 3, pp 423–440 | Cite as

Density and growth rates of spider mites in relation to phenological stages of soybean cultivars in Brazil

  • Jonas André ArnemannEmail author
  • Rubens Alex Fiorin
  • Clérison Régis Perini
  • Lindolfo Storck
  • Luis Eduardo Curioletti
  • Gösta Nachman
  • Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes


The population fluctuations of spider mites on different soybean cultivars were studied in two experiments performed in the municipalities of São Sepé (experiment 1) and Santa Maria (experiment 2) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The number of cultivars was 20 in São Sepé and 25 in Santa Maria, and at each location leaves were sampled from 15 plants per cultivar every week throughout the entire plant developmental cycle, amounting to 11 and 10 samplings in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that mite densities varied significantly with cultivar and time. Besides, the interaction between soybean cultivars and sampling times was significant at both locations. This indicates that the populations did not vary in the same way among cultivars over time, which is attributed to differences among the cultivars with respect to their phenology and response to spider mites. Equations for describing the mite population dynamics were estimated for each cultivar, mostly by fitting cubic equations to the weekly growth rates (per capita changes) in mite densities. We also found that the highest growth rates for mites on soybean cultivars in both locations occurred after the beginning of flowering, when the plants shifted from the vegetative to reproductive stages, about 3 weeks before reaching the peak densities.


IPM Population peak Sampling procedure Tetranychidae 



We thank the Brazilian Federal Agency for the Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education – Capes, for giving financial support to JAA, and L. Burtet, L. Stefanelo, R.F. Stacke, B. Tomazi and A. Fiorentini for field and laboratory assistance.


  1. Bolland HH, Gutierrez J, Flechtmann CHW (1998) World catalogue of the spider mite family (Acari: Tetranychidae). Leiden, BrillGoogle Scholar
  2. Cruz CD (2013) Genes—a software package for analysis in experimental statistics and quantitative genetics. Acta Sci Agron 35:271–276. doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i3.21251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dehghan MS, Allahyari H, Saboori A, Nowzari J, Naveh VH (2009) Fitness of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on different soybean cultivars: biology and fertility life-tables. Int J Acarol 35:341–347. doi: 10.1080/01647950903074733 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Flechtmann CHW (1972) Ácaros de importância agrícola [mites of agricultural importance]. Nobel, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  5. Guedes JVC, Navia D, Lofego AC, Dequech STB (2007) Ácaros associados à cultura da soja no Rio Grande do Sul [Mites associated with soybean crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil]. Neotrop Entomol 32:288–293. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000200017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lara FM (1991) Princípios de resistência de plantas a insetos [Principles of plant resistance to insects], 2nd edn. São Paulo, ÍconeGoogle Scholar
  7. Rao RC (1952) Advanced statistical methods in biometric research. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Ritchie SW, Hanway JJ, Thompson HE (1982) How a soybean plant develops. Iowa State 370 University of Science and Technology Cooperative Extension Service, Ames, 20 p (Special Report, 371 53)Google Scholar
  9. Roggia S (2007) Ácaros tetraniquídeos (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) associados à soja no Rio Grande do Sul: ocorrência, identificação de espécies e efeito de cultivares e de plantas daninhas. 2007. 113 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Agronomia)—Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria [Spider mite (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) associated with soybean crops in the state of Rio Grande do Sul: occurrence, species identification and effect of cultivars and weeds. 2007. 113 f. Dissertation (Master’s degree in Agronomy)—Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria]Google Scholar
  10. Roggia S, Guedes JVC, Kuss RCR, Arnemann JA, Návia D (2008) Spider mites associated to soybean in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 43:295–301. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2008000300002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sedaratian A, Fathipour Y, Moharramipou S (2009) Evaluation of resistance in 14 soybean genotypes to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Pest Sci 82:163–170. doi: 10.1007/s10340-008-0235-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Silva AR, Dias CTS (2013) A cophenetic correlation coefficient for Tocher’s method. Pesqui Agropecu Bras 48:589–596. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2013000600003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Siqueira F (2011) Biologia e flutuação populacional de Mononychellus planki (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) em cultivares de soja Glycine max (l.) Merr. e impacto do imidacloprido em aspectos biológicos do adulto. 62 f. Tese (Doutorado em Biologia), Universidade Federal do Paraná, CuritibaGoogle Scholar
  14. Storck L, Fiorin RA, Cargnelutti Filho A, Guedes JVC (2012) A sampling procedure for quantifying mites in soybeans. Exp Appl Acarol 57:117–126. doi: 10.1007/s10493-012-9547-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Taylor LR (1961) Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature 189:732–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. War AR, Paulraj MG, Ahmad T et al (2012) Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores. Plant Signal Behav 7(10):1306–1320. doi: 10.4161/psb.21663 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Yorinori JT (1996) Cancro da haste da soja: epidemiologia e controle. Londrina: Embrapa Soja, 393 75 p (Circular técnica, 14)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonas André Arnemann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rubens Alex Fiorin
    • 2
  • Clérison Régis Perini
    • 1
  • Lindolfo Storck
    • 1
  • Luis Eduardo Curioletti
    • 1
  • Gösta Nachman
    • 3
  • Jerson Vanderlei Carús Guedes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant ProtectionFederal University of Santa Maria (UFSM)Santa MariaBrazil
  2. 2.Product and Market Development AgronomistNufarm Indústria Química e Farmacêutica S/AMaracanaúBrazil
  3. 3.Section of Ecology and Evolution, Department of BiologyUniversity of CopenhagenØ CopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations