Long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a meso-Mediterranean climate


Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) are very valuable in trophy-hunting but also contribute to the preservation of natural areas. They are affected by many parasites and pathogens, including hard ticks that are not only important parasites themselves but can also act as vectors and/or reservoirs of pathogens. Tick phenology is complex insofar as population dynamics depend on environmental conditions, vegetation, host availability and their own intrinsic characteristic. Ticks were collected monthly from January 2007 to December 2014 from red deer on a natural reserve located in a meso-Mediterranean environment in Central Spain. A total of 8978 specimens of ixodid ticks were recovered with a mean Parasitization Index of 65.06 ticks/deer. Red deer were infected the whole year round with a summer-spring pattern and two secondary peaks in February and October. The main species was Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch followed by Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer and Ixodes ricinus L. Hyalomma lusitanicum has a complex life cycle in which several generations initiate their cycle at different times throughout the year, most probably lasting more than 1 year. We also describe the ability of nymphs to feed on large ungulates even though their habitual host is wild rabbit.

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The authors are especially grateful to his Grace the Duke of Westminster for his support during all the studies. This project was financed by the Villamagna SA and the projects CCG10-UCM/AMB-4936, INCRECYT (European Social Funds) and RTA2014-00080-00-00.

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Correspondence to F. Valcárcel.

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Valcárcel, F., González, J., Tercero Jaime, J.M. et al. Long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a meso-Mediterranean climate. Exp Appl Acarol 69, 61–72 (2016).

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  • Red deer
  • Hyalomma lusitanicum
  • Rhipicephalus bursa
  • Rhipicephalus pusillus
  • Dermacentor marginatus
  • Ixodes ricinus
  • Seasonal frequency