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Experimental and Applied Acarology

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 337–362 | Cite as

Economic threshold for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in clementine mandarins Citrus clementina

  • Sara Pascual-Ruiz
  • Ernestina Aguilar-Fenollosa
  • Victoria Ibáñez-Gual
  • Mónica A. Hurtado-Ruiz
  • M. Teresa Martínez-Ferrer
  • Josep A. Jacas
Article

Abstract

Tetranychus urticae is a key pest of citrus in Spain, especially of clementine mandarin trees. The effects of this mite on fruit production were assessed in 24 clementine trees for three consecutive years. Trees were visited weekly and spider mite and phytoseiid mite populations and leaf flush patterns were estimated. At the end of the season, mandarins were harvested, weighed, and mite damage (scarring on the fruit) characterized. Negative relationships between spider mite density and yield (kg/tree) and fruit damage (% scarred fruit rind) were found. The multivariate regressions highlighted the key role of phytoseiid mites and leaf flush patterns, which were negatively related to fruit damage. The shortest sampling period that satisfactorily predicted fruit damage at harvest, extended from August to mid-October. For IPM purposes, an action threshold of 31.1 mites m−2 of symptomatic leaf was estimated. Taking into account spider mite dynamics, the economic threshold ranged from 10 to 15 mites m−2 of symptomatic leaf. When this threshold is exceeded growers would have a 1-week window to apply the control technologies against T. urticae of their choice.

Keywords

IPM Spider mites Fruit damage Cosmetic threshold Economic injury level Phytoseiidae Citrus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank J.E. Peña (TREC-UF, Florida, US) for critical comments on an earlier version of this manuscript, A. Benajes and M.J. Garcés (COCALNI, Les Alqueries) for providing the study orchard, and M.T. Pina, O. Dembilio, C. Pérez-Sayas (UJI) for helping during harvest. This work was partially funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (projects AGL2004-07464-C03-01, AGL2005-07155-C03, AGL2008-05287-C04-03/AGR and AGL2011-30538-C03-01). S.P.R. and E.A.F. were recipients of a predoctoral grant from MICINN and UJI, respectively.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Pascual-Ruiz
    • 1
  • Ernestina Aguilar-Fenollosa
    • 1
  • Victoria Ibáñez-Gual
    • 2
  • Mónica A. Hurtado-Ruiz
    • 1
  • M. Teresa Martínez-Ferrer
    • 3
  • Josep A. Jacas
    • 1
  1. 1.Unitat Associada d’Entomologia UJI-Institut Valencià d’Investigacions Agràries (IVIA)Universitat Jaume I (UJI)Castelló de la PlanaSpain
  2. 2.Departament de MatemàtiquesUniversitat Jaume ICastelló de la PlanaSpain
  3. 3.Estació Experimental de l’EbreInstitut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentària (IRTA)AmpostaSpain

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